Specifically, in human life, as is with all chemical reactions, there are two central driving forces underlying the impetus or desire to bond intimately with another human companion: Thermodynamically, the desire to bond 'physically' to another human molecule is measured by a quantity called the change in enthalpy [∆H]. Likewise, the desire to bond 'neurologically' to another is measured by a quantity called the change in entropy [∆S]. Together these thermodynamic quantities constitute the two central driving forces in human life. However, as many are keenly aware, when selecting for mates a compromise must always be made: if one selects highly for physical attractiveness -- a reduction in neurological attractiveness will always be inherent; if one selects highly for neurological attractiveness -- a reduction in physical attractiveness will always be inherent. To account for this compromise, the change in free energy of the system [∆G = ∆H - T∆S], that occurs during the reaction, measures the 'balance' between these two driving forces. The summed measure of this balance determines whether a reaction is going to be spontaneous, i.e. successful. The calculated value of each respective driving force determines the outcome of the reaction as follows: Thermodynamically, these stipulations are summed energetically in the definition of the Gibbs free energy equation. Statistically, according to U.S. Census Bureau, of those who marry, i.e. bond in matrimony, 43% will separate or get divorced within 15 years. These undesirable reactions or divorcing-bonds are defined as endergonic marriages [∆G>0], i.e. energy absorbing marriages; those reactions or bonds that hold indefinitely or remain together, are defined as exergonic marriages [∆G<0], i.e. energy releasing marriages. Thermodynamics, the science of energy transformations, is as old as time. Stirring in the science literature presently is the quest to elucidate thermodynamic reasoning behind the mechanism of evolution (particularly human life) as it relates to the flux of thermal energy traversing from the sun, deriving in step-by-step mechanism, in origins, from the hypothetical event known as the big bang. From this event, over the last five billion years, the thermodynamic system, termed the "solar system", has sprung into existence: 1. Observed a likeness between the sun to that of fire. 2. Observed that the sun was a precursor to life. 3. Observed that life was distinguished from non-life by an ability to rhythmically move air or 'spirit'. 4. Noted that a flood, or water, was needed to create life. 5. Noted that trees came to life once the sun passed the winter solstice, the darkest day of the year. Next, in 490 BC, the Greek philosopher Leucippus originated the Theory of the Atom in which he proposed that everything in the universe was either atoms or voids. His theory stated that matter is homogeneous but consists of an infinite number of small indivisible particles called atoms. His stance was that these atoms are constantly in motion and through their collisions and regroupings form various compounds – as air, man, earth, the sun, etc. These concepts form the beginnings of modern chemistry - the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. From these principles, in 1680 an associate of Boyle’s named Denis Papin, a British physicist, built a pressure cooker, which is a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid that confines steam until a high pressure is generated. Its original purpose was for bone softening. The first several models exploded, so Papin implemented a release valve to vent the excess steam. By watching this valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the use of energy to drive a piston in a cylinder, i.e. a steam engine! This new branch of thermodynamics, now defines itself as the study of the energy transformations in human life as understood to be a series of interconnected bond forming reactions and and bond dissolutioning break-ups through all facets of human experience, as in: relationships, friendships, occupations, family relationships, societal bonds, etc. Heat [Q] moves from a hot source [TH] to a cold source [TC] and energy in the form of work [W] or 'purpose' is extracted. In this diagram [above], the circle is the engine, the hot source is the fuel, and the cold source is the sink. Analogously, below we see the typical diagram for two humans, Male = Mx and Female = Fy, bonded in a relationship, held together through what’s called a photon bond: Favorable bonds release energy, or heat [Q], and unfavorable bonds absorb energy, or heat [Q]. In human life, the ‘bond’ functions as the engine, releasing energy or heat [Q] in the form of work [W] or purpose, i.e. if the bond is of a favorable variety; conversely, the bond may function to absorb energy, or heat [Q], if the bond is of an unfavorable variety. Here, the hot source [TH] can be any feature of neurological or physical attractiveness perceptually seen in the bonded companion; the cold source [TC] again is a sink. For example, he may be ‘hot’ for her attractive sense of humor, and she may be ‘hot’ for his muscular arms; thus each aspect of the heating or cooling process relates to those parts of the bond corresponding to energy in transit. In other words, when two people form a stable relationship, each partner subsequently draws energy off the other in the form of heat [Q]; such energy is then used to have purpose in life. To clarify, below we see both a human engine and a mechanical engine: 8. Observed that the water lily closed for the night and sank under water, rising and reopening as the sun rose, as if under command. 9. Observed that the mandrill would habitually roar to the rise of the morning sun and beat its chest in the direction of the sun, as if in worship. From this basis we have the science of chemistry. Akin to these endeavors on the purely thermodynamic front, a few years prior in 1645, British physicist and chemist Robert Boyle, while at the University of Oxford, began to analyze the interrelation between temperature, pressure, and volume related to a body of gaseous molecules. From his data, he conceived of and built a bicycle pump. Using this pump, he noted the more air you pumped in the hotter the container got! 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and chemical properties. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. (also: Rearrangements entail either the absorbtion or release of Heat [Q]) In this discourse, Carnot introduced us to the first modern day definition of work: ‘weight lifted through a height’. From his research, Carnot was able to determine that the efficiency of an idealized engine depends only on the difference in temperature between the hottest parts and the coldest parts and not on the substance (steam or other fluid) that drives the mechanism.
William Thomson [1824-1907]
In 1850, the famed mathematical physicist Rudolf Clausius originated and defined the term enthalpy [H] to be the total heat content of the system, stemming from the Greek word ‘enthalpein’ meaning to warm, and defined the term entropy [S] to be the heat lost or turned into waste, stemming from the Greek word ‘entrepein’ meaning to turn.
Rudolf Clausius [1822-1888]
In association with Clausius, in 1871, the Scottish mathematician and physicist James Maxwell formulated a new branch of thermodynamics called Statistical Thermodynamics, which functions to analyze large numbers of particles, at equilibrium i.e. systems where no changes are occurring, such that only their average properties as temperature [T], pressure [P], and volume [V] become important.
James Maxwell [1831-1879]
The year 1876 was a seminal point in the development of human thought. During this essential period, chemical engineer Willard Gibbs, the first person in America to be awarded a PhD in engineering (Yale), published an obscure 300-pg paper titled: ‘On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances,' wherein he formulated one grand equation:
∆G = ∆H - T∆S
Willard Gibbs [1839-1903]
To contrast the these two divisions of thermodynamics, suppose one side of a tank of gas is at 100 degrees and the other side at 50 degrees; as you would guess, given time, a change will occur and the tank will soon become uniform in temperature -- at which point it is then at equilibrium. Thus, nonequilibrium systems are systems held by force at bay from equilibrium, such that continuous change is always occurring. Onsager won the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of a general theory of irreversible chemical processes; as in nonlinear calcium ion concentrations transport mechanisms in living cells. In 2001, biophysicist Don Haynie from Johns Hopkins published an undergraduate textbook entitled: ‘Biological Thermodynamics’ about the thermodynamics of living organisms. It covers the energy transformations involved in the formations and breakdowns of proteins, enzymes, DNA, and other small internal bodily molecules, i.e. ones composed of seven atoms or fewer as: Coenzyme A: C21H36N7O16P3S - a five-element molecule. Nothing out of the ordinary here. Haynie devotes the last chapter in his book to speculations on human life; his consensus is such that "the physicochemical basis of order in biological organisms remains a major unsolved puzzle." However the title of the book is catchy, the cover is intriguing, and he is certainly on the right track in many respects; as Hayne states: At this point, we take a turn for the different. In 1995 [see: FAQ #16], working in scientific isolation, chemical engineer and electrical engineer Libb Thims, started from scratch, began working to develop needed connections and frameworks necessary to assimilate the aforementioned thermodynamic buildup, specifically the governing design inherent in the Gibbs free energy equation, into the arena of human mating, i.e. the human engine or family structure, which as many will agree is the quintessential focal point in human life. During these years, knowing nothing of other research endeavors in this direction, Thims strived intensely to understand how the following relatively simply looking equation, called the Gibbs free energy equation, shown below, which measures the spontaneity of all reactions, could be applied to human life? In the mechanical case, both the heat source [TH] and the heat sink [TC] are contained in one unit, i.e. the vehicle. In the human molecule case, the heat source [TH] and the heat sink [TC] are separated by a distance of space. For the two to connect, allowing energy to transform into work [W], a bond must exist. For example, be it a man pulling a rickshaw 'bonded' financially to his passengers, or be it a women working as the CEO of a Fortune-500 company with fuel for her purpose in life stemming from her 'bond' to her husband and family; in each case there must exist a bond. The type of bond inherent here is the photon bond. Again, the parallels are exact; the same principles [laws] of thermodynamics apply in both cases. Although human thermodynamics can be used to study all avenues of human life, a central goal of HT at present is via giving people the correct tools to better match themselves, to increase the efficiency of inter-bonded human life, particularly marriage-life, i.e., to get more out of what you put in - efficiency. In doing this, we define all of the potential mates one will ever come across in one's life to be his or her chemical ‘potentials’ [G], i.e. bond forming relationships that might or might not work [W]. Similarly, the change [∆] in the chemical potential [G], or the change in Gibbs Free Energy [∆G], for each of those prospective reactions provides a measure or indicator as to which direction each respective reaction is likely to follow, i.e. it measures the spontaneity - arising from natural feeling or innate tendency without external constraint - of the reaction: 10. Observed that life could be regenerated or reborn by planting shucked corn kernels into the ground, that, come next season would be ‘reborn’ in its original form wrapped in a husk, i.e. 'mummified', which mysteriously coincided with the appearance of birds hovering over these newly formed cobs in the spring season - seemingly moving 'spirit' into them? 6. Noted that Sirius made its first heliacal rising of the year at the start of the annual Nile floods. 7. Observed that life, i.e. dung-beetle larvae, burst from ‘mounds', i.e. dung mounds or mini-pyramids, with the morning rise of the sun. These curiosities, together with something called the "reverse-confession" where following death one's heart would confess all of one's prior sins, instilled a sense in these early Egyptians that in some way wrongful human actions detrimentally carry through the matrix of inter bonded human life for multiple generations; and that in some way this phenomena connected to solar heat input from the sun? From these scientifically observable, measurable, and testable phenomena, hypotheses were formulated regarding the origins, purposes, modeling, and destinations of human life. To summarize, early Egyptian scientists discovered that heat [Q], or energy in transit, from the sun, caused reproducible transformations, i.e. life, to stimulate on earth; furthermore, they found these transformations to be measurable via intelligent scientific enquiry on the dynamics of heat [Q], i.e. ‘thermo-dynamics’ or heat movements. Using these designs, in 1698, the English military engineer Thomas Savery built a machine consisting of a closed vessel filled with water into which steam under pressure was introduced. This machine was originally used to pump water out of salt mines in England, a job previously done solely by horses attached to a system of pulleys and buckets. Thus, each engine was associated with a certain amount of ‘horse power’ depending upon how many horses it had replaced! The main problem with this first engine was that it was slow and clumsy, converting less than 2% of the input fuel, or coal, into useful work. The name thermodynamics, however, did not arrive until some twenty-five years later when in 1849, the British mathematician and physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) coined the term ‘thermodynamics' in a paper on the efficiency of steam engines. The following year, in 1875, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann formulated a precise connection between entropy [S] and and molecular motion being defined in terms of the number of possible states [W] such motion could occupy where k the Boltzmann's constant:
S = k log W
Ludwig Boltzmann [1844-1906]
The significance of this small equation, is the connection between entropy and order. In human life, 'order' is determined via one's central nervous system. Hence, from this equation people have intuited the definition of entropy as a measure of cognitive ability. In boltzmann's own words: 'The general struggle for existence of animate beings is not a struggle for raw materials – these, for organisms, are air, water and soil, all abundantly available – nor for energy which exists in plenty in any body in the form of heat, but a struggle for entropy, which becomes available through the transition of energy from the hot sun to the cold earth.'
Succinctly, Gibbs proved the principles and laws of thermodynamics to be applicable to small chemical reactions as:
Ilya Prigogine [1917-2003]
Erwin Schrodinger [1887-1961]
On the heels of Onsager, in 1943, Austrian Physicist Erwin Schrodinger gave a series of lectures at Dublin's Trinity College described as 'a physicist's take on life'. These lectures culminated in the publication of a now famous book entitled: What is Life? In this book Schrodinger asks: how does life conform to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that systems naturally tend to get disorganized, when, as geology tells us things are getting more organized over time? This simple puzzle, coming from a Nobelist, spurred on hundreds of scientists to find a solution which to this day is still being debated. Moreover, in a sense, Schrodinger was skirting around the issue. When a colleague pointed out to him, that technically, the organization of organisms comes not from entropy but from free energy. Schrodinger replied that had he been writing for physicists , he would have made use of the concept of free energy; but judged it to be too difficult for the general audience.
At this point, regarding correlations between humanity and thermdynamics, we have thus far established the following connections:
Closer to home, in the 2003 book Information Theory and Evolution, Physicist, Theoretical Chemist, and Nobelist John Avery at the University of Copenhagen, states:
These efforts resulted in the synthesis of new tools and new perceptions of understanding on human reactive life, culminating in the synthesis of new branch of thermodynamics:
This new field rather than studying small internal bodily molecules and their reactions instead studies the human molecule, definitively labeled a twenty-six-element biomolecule, have quantitatively measureable chemical reactions: The extrapolation of this concept into the realm of the human engine - two or more people bonded - tells us that efficient human bonds will be ones wherein each bonded companion perceptually-views facets of other bonded human molecule to be at a hotter temperature - the greater the difference in the level of mutually-perceived 'hotness' the stronger the bond - the greater the efficiency. Most thermodynamic books credit Carnot’s paper as the starting point for thermodynamics as a science. We have, however not come to a consensus as to what defines 'life'. Moving us in this direction, is Belgian physicist, chemical engineer, and Nobelist Ilya Prigogine, who in 1977 published a book entitled: Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order Through Fluctuations, wherein he showed that when you channel heat [Q] through a viscous medium (as silicon oil), coherent 'structures' spontaneously emerge (as Benard cells). Meaning, his consensus was that heat from the sun dissipates into the formation of molecular structures. In other words, the entity called 'human', as we know it, is a molecular structure formed owing to the energy gradient from the hot Sun [10E7 K] to cold Pluto [50K]. This concept has been well-received. Prigogine's most popular book is Order out of Chaos .
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In this mathematically-dense paper, via a graphical analysis of phase diagrams of solid/liquid/gas systems conjoined with thoughts on the analysis of the Watt steam-engine governor i.e. a device that governs the equilibrium of the engine, or input balanced to output, Gibbs was able to extrapolate these phase transformation and equilibrium concepts into realm of chemical reactions. Below we see two of the decisive devices paramount in the development of these concepts, the Watt Steam Engine (below left) and the Gibbs Governor (below right): Deriving from the quasi-equilibrium point of view, or punctuated equilibrium thermodynamic perspective, between the years 1978 to the present, we find Gladyshev making great headway towards the unification of thermodynamic theory with that of the evolutionary process of life. We can define Gladyshev's contribution to human thermodynamic theory development via several important steps:
1. Gladyshev theorized the delineated of the plethora of life's groups, forms, and reaction types into thermodynamic system divisions based on similar structure size and reaction life-cycle (as diagramed adjacent).
2. Gladyshev established time specific thermodynamic criteria necessary in determining or justifying the use of equations of state for use in modeling each respective investigative thermodynamic 'open' living system: via temporally 'closed' quasi-equilibrium systems according to what is called Gladyshev's Law or:
... << tmol << tcel << torg << tpop << ...
This URL details the history and development of human thermodynamics as a science as cataloged, arranged and sequenced by Institute of Human Thermodynamics, as contributed to by accredited researchers, scientist, and writers in this field; see: HT History Tree
'To Promote the Art and Science of Human Thermodynamics for the Betterment of the Human Kind'
'The History of Human Thermodynamics details the evolved study of Heat and Work in relation to the processes of Human Life'
Stemming from these ideas, in 1808, the English school teacher John Dalton formulated the first precise definition of the atom where: In applying these rudimentary principles, as an example, below we see the Egyptian corn god Osiris who was shucked apart into 14 pieces. Each piece was then scattered about the land and, as legend has it, wherever a piece landed a temple grew. Later these pieces were collected and put back together into the form of a mummy. To reincarnate this mummy, two special birds, Isis or Stela Maris (star of the sea) and her sister Nephthys, had to hover over the inanimate body so to impart spirit into it. Osiris was the world's first mummy. In 1824, to help increase the efficiency, i.e. getting more out from what you put in, of these early steam engines, French physicist Sadi Carnot published a paper entitled: ‘Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire' [PDF]. This paper, by most standards, marks the starting point for thermodynamics as a modern science. This period typically marks the start for the inception of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as a science. This division of study typically asks: what are the thermodynamics of systems with externally applied forces and fluxes continuously applied to them? A key year in this direction, was In 1925, where the Norwegian-born American chemist Lars Onsager introduced the classical ‘statistical’ ideas of thermodynamics into the analysis of systems not at equilibrium, i.e. non-equilibrium systems. Specifically, Onsager developed what are known as the Onsager reciprocal relations which express the equality of certain relations between flows and forces in thermodynamical systems out of equilibrium, but where a notion of local equilibrium exists. Historically, the written origins of thermodynamics can only trace back as far as record allows. Our starting point will be Egypt from 5,000 BC to 2,000 BC. Here, the development of carved inscription, or hieroglyphics, on pyramids, burial chambers, and papyrus allowed for the first time, a knowledge base to accumulate. Egyptian scientists documented several interlinking phenomena relating to life and its workings: In recent years, the 16 fundamental particles that, in essence, comprise this "solar system" coalesced to form the self-defined molecular structures called "Homo sapiens". These structures, in recent years, have come to discern the thermodynamic underpinnings of their origin. The following time-line will outline this development.
By doing this, Gibbs single-handedly unified the sciences of chemistry and thermodynamics into a new branch of study called physical chemistry. A central feature of Gibbs’ work was to introduce a new quantity called the chemical potential [G], which can be thought of as the energy available to do work. Mathematically, by incorporating the work of Clausius, Gibbs defined chemical potential to be equal to the heat content of the system (as an engine, a body of liquid, or a chemical reaction) minus the heat lost or turned into waste. In equation form, this reads: G = H – T[S]; where T is the ambient temperature of the system. By measuring the change ∆ in the chemical potential of the system, Gibbs showed how this quantity gives an indicator as to which direction any reaction was likely to progress.
or the break-up of three friends:
This law is based on the observation that different structures delineate into different classifications of separate yet connected reacting systems distinguished by life-span (t):
Law of Temporal Hierarchies: any living system of any temporal hierarchical level in a normal state has a thermostat - a surrounding medium that is characterized by slightly changing average values of thermodynamic parameter.
Where ti is the average lifetime of the molecular structures of the lower temporal hierarchical level and ti+1 is the average lifetime of molecular structures of higher temporal hierarchical level. This law justifies the use quasi-closed equilibrium thermodynamic models to investigate open living systems.
T, V constant, ∆F < 0
T, P constant, ∆G < 0
"Criterion for Evolution"
2nd Law – It is a completely general fact of observation that in nature changes have a definite sense, some are spontaneous (natural), others not so (unnatural). [Planck terms]
2nd Law – Two bodies which are at different temperatures exchange heat in such a manner that heat flows naturally from the hotter to the colder body.
2nd Law – When a system evolves naturally, i.e. undergoes a natural process, in an isothermal manner at constant volume or constant pressure, its free energy or free enthalpy always decreases.
Thus, in near ubiquitous agreement, in this book we are given the criteria for evolutionary conditions on earth:
"The phenomenon of life, including its origin and evolution, against the background of thermodynamics, has its paradox of resolution in the information content of the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources."
[where: F = U – TS and G = H – TS]
A central tenet of this new science is to now view humans as molecules who are:
Succinctly, Thims took what principles we've accumulated over the years from engine analysis and chemical reaction analysis and applied them to reactions in human life as in the formation of a married couple:
In human terms, each of us, from a neurological point of view, struggles to bond "entropically" to the most ideal human companion one can perceptually realize. Contrasting with Prigogine, is the Russian physical chemist Georgi Gladyshev who in his seminal 1978 Journal of Theoretical Biology article "On the Thermodynamics of Biological Evolution" [Link] argues for a Gibbsian Thermodynamics theory of evolution, i.e. thermochemical evolution, via what is called the Law of Temporal Hierarchies which justifies the application of free energy functions of state thermodynamics, i.e. constant temperature constant pressure states, to biospheric processes (see: hierarchical thermodynamics). Gladyshev theorizes that living entities are large supramolecular structures governed by the principle that the Gibbs function of formation will tend to a minimum over the course of both ontogeny and phylogeny (see: Journal of Entropy Article ). Gladyshev’s most popular work is the 1997 book Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings [Link]. Moving forward, we may also gleam insights on the thermodynamics of human life from the near-equilibrium point of view, as American ecologist and thermodynamic researcher Eric Schneider has done in his 2005 book Into the Cool – Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life where we argue that living entities are non-equilibrium thermodynamic dissipative structures which form owing to gradient degradation. Schneider argues that owing to the Second Law variation of Le Chatelier's principle, because the earth system has a continually existent hot-to-cold energy gradient, that living complex structures originate due to the inherent tendency to resist the applied gradient. First, was the logic inherent within the newly published 1994 book The Evolution of Desire, by evolutionary psychologist David Buss, which details in precise, research-based, format the cross-cultural "tendencies", or second law impulses, of human mating behaviors. Through meta analysis of the mating desires and behaviors of over 10,000 people, as synthesized by fifty worldwide collaborators, from thirty-seven cultures located on six continents and five islands, from Australia to Zambia, Buss cogently uprooted the the patterns behind why we choose and loose our mates. In November of 2001, after unsuccessfully formulating on scratch paper for seven years, Thims finally pushed past the mental barrier of confusion on this matter, so to now come to visualize the beauty and inherent design confined within the Gibbs free energy equation as it definitively governs human interactions. In 2002, a month after this instantaneous moment of solution realization, Thims decided to write up a one-page book proposal query letter on this solution, reasoning that humanity might be interested to know that there is a governing equation of human relationships. By 2006, Thims had written the following books, totaling 1,150 pages, 500 scientific studies, and a plethora of desperately need new theories and concepts, and then began to filter these books through about 100+ reviewers to test for theoretical appeal and logical cohesiveness:
"Criterion for Evolution"
Second, was a principle, comprising the first and second laws of thermodynamics, defined in a chemical engineering lecture at some point on the prevalent understanding and use of the Gibbs free energy equation, being the energy balance on thermodynamically-closed evolving dynamic systems, as it is used to predict or measure the spontaneity of “any” potential chemical reaction, i.e. to quantitatively measure such a reaction's or reacting system's (as the biosphere) evolution in time. From these information packed seeds, a mental drive of curiosity developed as to the obvious relation and inevitable unification of these two concepts: In April of 2005, Thims began working to build a human thermodynamic community of internet-linked researchers, being unified by the human thermodynamics website, for the purpose of worldwide research unification, public information dissemination, news developments, link construction, etc. In September of 2005, Thims began organizing and constructing the Journal of Human Thermodynamics, with the goal to publish a minimum of 6 articles per year written by a consortium of seasoned human thermodynamicists.
Site Stats page for a detailed analysis of site development and visitor flow. As to the inception of ‘human thermodynamics’ as a workable science, this development, in Thims' mind, began to bloom during the ‘94/’95 school year while intensely studying as an undergraduate chemical engineering student at the University of Michigan. According to Zhan Chen, inorganic chemistry professor at the UofM and son of the Nobelist Yang Chen Ning [1957 - physics], Thims was strangely a "most intense student". During this period of intensity, two very fundamental seeds of logic began to take root. The applications of human thermodynamics are unlimited. In the near future, the science of HT will yield human reaction conversion rates of 95%, i.e. it will allow people to form successful marriage bonds with an inherent 5% divorce rate, as is done with small molecules presently. These beginnings into the science of HT are only the tip of the iceberg. The future is our intellectual playground -- for in its content falls contentment! ENJOY YOUR READ AND HAVE FUN -- ALWAYS! In June of 2005, human thermodynamic researchers Libb Thims and Lawrence Chin working in collaboration in analysis of his book: A Thermodynamics Interpretation of History [Link], specifically regarding the following:
Out of this interaction, Thims synthesized two new interpretations of evil in human life:
1. Predisposed Movement Evil [Type 1] - instability arising from predisposed unstable molecular paths.
2. All-Powerful Evil [Type 2] - instability arising within human structures striving to be all-powerful.
In July of 2005, human thermodynamic researchers Libb Thims and Andrew Maxwell began working in collaboration to develop a theory of Combat Thermodynamics based on the concepts of field particle exchange theory, human thermodynamics, and the patterned nature of war, i.e. transition state interactions. In October of 2005, in coordination with Libb Thims, physical chemist and human thermodynamics researcher Georgi Gladyshev coined the term "supramolecular receptors", being defined as the edge of atomic, molecular, electromagnetic information reception of "consciousness" at the interface boundary between one human molecule and his or her surroundings:
In November of 2005, Libb Thims began collaborating with human thermodynamic researcher Elizabeth Porteus on her "Impulse Theory" of human life so to better formulate using precise chemical terminology and theory. The new 2006 Journal of Human Thermodynamics article "Impulse Theory" is scheduled for the January issue.
In November of 2005, Libb Thims began collaborating with human thermodynamic researcher and computer science engineer Sandeep Ranade on his first law of thermodynamics, inter-human nodal bonding, Karma theory of human interactions. This new 2005 Journal of Human Thermodynamics article is scheduled for the December issue.
“A living organism is similar to a PC, but it is also very different….for an organism, be it a bacterium or a bat, utilizes free energy it has acquired from its environment to carry out a continual process of self-renewal, and this is something no machine can do.”
Accordingly, via human thermodynamics, which can be defined as the study of the energy transformations in human life as understood to be a series of interconnected bond forming and bond breaking relationships, or reactions, through all facets of human experience, as in: marriages, friendships, occupations, family relationships, societal bonds, etc., we have a scientific method for intelligent inquiry into the workings, mechanisms, and underpinnings of human interactions, particularly love.
According to human thermodynamics, of which chemistry is a part, humans are bound state biomolecules semi-attached to the substrate surface earth who 'react' with each other through interactive bond-forming and de-bond relationships, friendships, associations, societies, etc. The typical formula for a human molecule is shown below:
These distinctions are important in justifying a Gibbsian thermodynamic analysis of human life! In making this distinction, we now theoretically define, subgroup, or compartmentalize different interactive reactive living systems into separate yet connected quasi-equilibrium hierarchic thermodynamic systems, which can be defined as: thermodynamic systems consisting of hierarchic subsystems that are related to each other by structure and may be other subordination and by the transitions from lower level to higher ones. These subsystem should be also separated in space and / or with respect to the time needed for the relaxation to equilibrium.
3. Gladyshev established that, in the process of ontogenesis, as well as phylogenesis and evolution, the specific value of the Gibbs function of formation of supramolecular structures of the ith organism tends toward a minimum, as defined by the following integral limit:
4. Gladyshev established the Principle of Substance Stability which describes the tendency or trend of natural systems to seek local and general equilibria at all temporal and structural levels of the organization of matter. These tendencies derive from the second law thermodynamics (the Clausius–Gibbs variation) in coordination with the Le Chatelier–Braun principle. It boils down to the following:
The justification of this statement is connected with the phenomenon of metabolism and the exchange of matter and energy between adjoined hierarchies. Lower level hierarchical molecular structures are often reproduced in a medium of higher level hierarchical molecular structures during the lifetime of the latter. Thus, we have:
As a rule, modern thermodynamics studies simple or complex systems with
similar processes taking place in a single fixed time scale. Usually,
the processes are localized in one or several hierarchies. However, the
processes in real systems usually imply complicated transformations involving
structures of various hierarchies and relating to different time scales. In this situation we use the full differential equations and characteristic functions defined for macrothermodynamics - thermodynamics of complex
hierarchic natural systems at constant temperature and pressure. The commonly known equation combining the first and the second
laws of thermodynamics for complex closed systems where physical-chemical
processes take place is:
TdS ≥ dU + PdV - ∑ Xkdxk - ∑ μkdmk
Here T denotes temperature, S the entropy, U the internal
energy, p pressure, V volume, Xk any generalized
force except pressure, xk any generalized coordinate
except volume, m k chemical
potential, mk the mass of the k-th substance,
which can be replaced by the number of moles. The equality sign relates
to the case of reversible changes, the inequality describes the irreversible
ones. The work performed by the system is negative.
In such hierarchic systems, not only do chemical reactions take
place but also transformations between the structure elements of other
j-th hierarchic levels (i-th partial evolution). Moreover,
let the reagents of each i- th evolution condense into the particles
of the i-th evolution phase - a structure of higher level of substance
organization. In their turn, the latter are reagents of the next, (i+1)
-th, partial evolution. (The order of the partial evolution, i and
of the structure hierarchy, j corresponds to the hierarchy order
of the reagents.) Transformation of similar reagents of some hierarchic
level (j) into similar reagents of the next hierarchic levels (j+1,
j+2,...) can be represented as using a system of bi-directional two-way transition reactions arrows.
Our agreement with this free energy minimization tendency or principle is strengthened by acknowledging the existence of near uniformity of acceptance of this principle in the learned scientific community. For example, in physical chemist Sture Nordholm's 1997 Journal of Chemical Education Article "In Defense of Thermodynamics - An Animate Analogy" we are told that in nature, where we consider a small subsystem of fixed volume exchanging energy with its surroundings acting as a thermal reservoir, that the corollary of the second law states that:
"Nature Seeks to Minimize the Free Energy [H - TS] of a subsystem"
Or in a more fundamental manner, in OKern & Weisbrod's (1967) Thermodynamics for Geologists (textbook) we are given three statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics:
where V is the volume of the system; m is the mass of the identified microvolumes; x, y, and z are coordinates; "—" implies we are using the specific value (relating to the macrovolume) of G; "im" signifies a inter-molecular or supra-molecular structer; and "~" stresses the heterogeneous character of the system. This formulation is a gigantic step of thermodynamic logic towards the successful thermodynamic modeling of human life!!!
In 1923, building on the energy conservation principles of Hermann von Helmholtz and the consciousness theories of John Locke, and based on the principle that the human organism, as governed by the mind, is inherently an energy-system, the Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud separated Locke's consciousness into three energetic parts. He called this his "structural theory" of the mind. Freud pictured the mind as being divided into three distinct yet interacting agencies: the id or the wholly unconscious domain of the mind, consisting of the drives and of material later repressed, the ego which is partly conscious and contains the defense mechanisms and the capacities to calculate, reason, and plan, and the super-ego also only partly conscious, which harbors the conscience and, beyond that, unconscious feelings of guilt .
Sigmund Freud [1856-1939]
 The id being the source of the energy for the system, described as our biological needs, drives and instincts, as: hunger, thirst, desire, and sex, etc. [the sub-conscious]  The superego being the restrictions to this energy, owing to society's rules, the energy of conflict, constrictions in life, directives, friction, confusion, tension, etc. [the pre-conscious]  The ego being the release of the remaining free productive energy in the form of work and activity into the external world [the conscious] Freud, having been influenced during his education by the works of those as Charles Darwin, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Ernst von Brucke, argued that human beings, being energy-systems applicable to the laws of thermodynamics, have a “tendency” to seek pleasure and avoid pain [second law of thermodynamics]. Moreover, during early life, this tendency brings the developing individual into conflict with the external world. The consequences of these conflicts are retained in the unconscious [first law of thermodynamics]. Freud held that the conflicts in early life arose as a result of innate human drives or instinct; where an awareness of a need to keep rein on the free expression of drives gradually develops, and failure to keep rein on these drives is felt as guilt. Life becomes a state of fluid equilibrium [Gibb’s equilibrium] between drives, conflicts, and reality . Based on this energetic equilibrium principle, Freud theorized that the “ego” is the only part of the consciousness or psyche [system] to have connection to the external world; as such, it functions as an energetic sieve between the competing internal forces of the “id” and “superego” with those external regulating forces and restrictions of the surroundings.
The justice of the principle is proved on a quantitative basis as applied to the molecular and supramolecular structural levels of biological tissues.
Principle of Substance Stability: during the formation or self-assembly of the most thermodynamically stable structures at the highest hierarchical level (j), e.g., the supramolecular level, Nature, in accordance with the second law, spontaneously uses predominantly the least thermodynamically stable structures available from a given local part of the biological system, belonging to a lower level, i.e. molecular level (j-1), and incorporates these unstable structures into next higher level, i.e. supramolecular level (j).