Related by descendancy to human molecules, suppose we put four atoms in close proximity:
If you’re in the middle of a ‘break-up:’
In science, human thermodynamics (HT) is the study of heat and work transformations involved in the processes of human existence.  HT is a fusion of the following fields:

1. Particle Physics the science of sub-atomic behaviors.
2. Human Chemistry the science of human molecular behaviors.
3. Evolutionary Psychology the science of human mating behaviors.
4. Thermodynamics the science of energy transformations.

In more detail, human thermodynamics is the study of the energy  and entropy aspects of the work cycles involved in human life, namely those existent between heat, spontaneity, irreversibility and the laws defining therein.  In short, human thermodynamics is the study of heat and its relation to the motion and changes in the equilibriums of human bodies. The essential process of thermodynamics is that whereby heat cycles through a system of chemical species, e.g. water molecules in a steam engine or human molecules in a social system (sociological thermodynamics) and thereby mediates the production of work. In simple terms, heat, in the form of gamma-ray photons, cycles from the sun, the systems are coupled economies, the chemical species are people, and the work is the work of life. The four laws of thermodynamics define the boundaries of this action.

The Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics (, started in 2007, is compendium of 500+ articles on topics in human thermodynamics as well as a listing of the biographies of the dozens of pioneers of human thermodynamics as well as their theories.  Pictorially, the basic outline of the science of human thermodynamics equates to approximately:

   What is Humankind's Present-Day Greatest Philosophical Conundrum?                                  
The enigma of time?
The meaning of life... i.e., what is our purpose, function, or design?
Does god exist?
What is love?
What happens when you die?
Is destiny ours to make, or is it predetermined?
The question of reality?
The perception of truth?
The paradox of existence...i.e., why are we here?
The nature of good and evil?

Suppose a man Mx meets a woman Fy; will their union MxFy hold?  That is, does their reaction:
Have a better Conundrum?
Know of any corrections, modifications, or additions to this page?
Have any questions, suggestions, or contributions?
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                                   Inception: 04/27/05
∆G = ∆H – T∆S Gibbs free energy equation
designed with Homestead
POLL: the conundrums (shown above) are real answers supplied by Chicagoans: Street Poll [2005].
NOTE: this website is a work-in-progress; feel free to add, suggest, or contribute to its construction via email.
CONTENT: site currently comprises 100+ informational pages - Site Stats - for visitors + stats.
NOTE: see all the warm-fuzzes people have left.
Quick anchor links: Beauty and Brains dicotomy
Why are affluent neighborhoods more organized than less affluent neighborhoods, and how does this 'pattern' relate to the thermodynamic quantity entropy, a measure of organization?  During the first few days of class at any random high school, why do 'cliques', which in a very literal sense organize themselves from HOT to COLD, spontaneously form?

Suppose a man has ten girlfriends [∆G1, ∆G2, ∆G3, ... ∆G10]; how can he use the science of human thermodynamics to help him select, leaving no semblance of doubt, the absolute ‘best’ match? 
Tell a friend about this page
DATA: the English vs. Math factoid derives from a sampled poll of Chicagoans from twenty different high schools [2005].
NOTE: for proof of inverse relation - see: HT-Mandate #1
Why for 3% of the population are same-sex bonds MxMx or FyFy more stable than opposite sex bonds MxFy; for example, is it correct to say that the hydroxide molecule O-H is 'right' for the way it bonds and that the hydrogen molecule H-H is 'wrong' for the way it bonds?

SEE: World Views regarding which bonds are currently 'legal' and which are 'illegal'.
Which is inherently more stable a four-friend bond:
With respect to intimate relationship (reaction) life, to elaborate on the concepts of equilibrium and spontaneity, it is well known that the process of pair-bonding or human bonding in general and the characteristic love or heat energy dynamics resulting from such bond formations mediates thru the action of conjoined parallel, evolving, substrate-attached, human chemical reactions.  The change in the Gibbs free energy determines the "spontaneity" of these reactions, i.e. if they will work or not.  In other words, for example, in theory, rather than haphazardly and inefficiently stumbling through the dating market "testing the water" (i.e. hot, ambient, or cold) one can instead constructively use the Gibbs free energy equation to pre-calculate or see into the future whether or not any particular bond will hold, be it a relationship bond, occupational bond, or friendship bond, etc., as determined by how far such bonds are from equilibrium (i.e. dead relationship level) [12].
Say a woman Fy desires employment W with a certain company; will the product FyW of this potential merger work?
Low Entropy Molecular Substrate
Tetra-bonded Human-ide Molecule
What are the Thermodynamics of Love?
What does it mean to be: 'So Full of Life?'
Furthermore, suppose we impose constraints onto the system such that only monogamous relationships (bonds) are ‘legal’.  The question remains, because of these constraints, who will be more likely to stay married and who will be more likely, or tempted, to ‘cheat’ through a sort of crude serial monogamy? 
It's now time to apply what we've learned to our own lives!
H2O molecules in possession
of gravitational potential energy
What - do I have to do to get (i.e. bond with) that
most desired man or woman?
If everyone agrees with absolute certainty that there do exist ‘bonds’ between humans, some strong, some weak, then why over the course of our existence has no one come forward to explain their mechanism of operation via the fundamental forces?
Baierlein, R. (1999). Thermal Physics (textbook). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University: Hyperphysics (online), "Discourse on Heat and Work" [URL].

Veltman, M. (2003). Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing.
Schroeder, D. (2000). Thermal Physics (textbook). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

[3] (2003). Definition: 'desire'. Origin: WordNet ® 2.0, © 2003 Princeton University.

Carnot, S. (1824). Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire - and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power. (Dover Reprint, 1988). New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Stokes, P. (2003). Philosophy 100 - Essential Thinkers. New York: Enchanted Lion Books.
IoHT (2003). Freud's Psycho Dynamic Theory [1873-1923] (article). [URL]. Chicago: IoHT Publishing.

Bryson, B. (2003). A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Broadway Books.

Wheeler, L. (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs - The History of a Great Mind. Connecticut: Ox Bow Press.

Gibbs, W. (1876). The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs: "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances", Vol. 1, Thermodynamics. Connecticut: Ox Bow Press [HT Books].
Gladyshev, G. (1997). Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. [HT Books].
Gladyshev, G. (2003). Supramolecular Thermodynamics - a Key to Understanding the Phenomenon of Life (in Russian). Moscow: Izhevski. ISBN: 59397-21982
Gladyshev, G. (2006). "The Principle of Substance Stability is Applicable to all Levels of Organization of Living Matter." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2006, 7, 98-110 - International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS) (ISSN: 1422-0067 Online; ISSN: 1424-6783 CD-ROM; CODEN: IJMCFK). [PDF], [URL]
Haynie, D. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hwang, D. (2004). Journal of Hybrid Vigor: "The Thermodynamics of Love", Emory University: [URL].
Muller, E. (1998). “Human Societies: A Curious Application of Thermodynamics”. Chemical Engineering Education [CEE], Vol. 32, Num. 3, summer issue. University of Florida Publications: Department of Chemical Engineering [Abstract].
Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.
Thims, L. (2002-2005). Human Thermodynamics, Vol I-III. Chicago: IoHT Publishing Ltd. [HT Books].
Thims, Libb (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). LuLu.
Thims, Libb (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two). LuLu.

Thims, L. (2005). Poll: "Is Love a Chemical Reaction" Yes or No? (survey of 100 Chicagoans: 60% college students, 40% working class). Chicago: Institute of Human Thermodynamics Publishing. [URL]

Ege, S. (1994). Organic Chemistry - Structure and Reactivity (textbook). Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Health and Company.

NSHS (2001). "43 Percent of First Marriages Break Up Within 15 Years". [URL]. Maryland: Hyattsville, US CDC.
Wilkins, S. (2005). "For Richer or Poorer". [URL]. Mother Jones []
energy in transit [1]
fundamental interactions [2]
As many will agree, the mechanism underlying the desire to bond perfectly with another human being is the most fundamental curiosity of all human existence.  No other question carries more weight!  The science of human thermodynamics provides the answer.  This objective defines HT's pinnacle mandate for millennia to come.  Thermodynamics itself is concerned with transformations of energy, and the laws of thermodynamics describe the bounds within which these transformations are observed to occur.  The "process" of human life defined by its myriad peculiarities within its insatiable multi-timed flow is one of these bounded transformations.  Over the last 200-years, more than 105+ individuals have published views on the relationship between thermodynamics and existence.
  Willard Gibbs [1839-1903]
Founder of the science of Chemical Thermodynamics
Descendant of 6 generations of college graduates: 8 Harvard, 3 Yale, and 2 Princeton.
Received the first doctorate of engineering to be granted in the U.S. (Yale)
His 1876 paper On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances is concidered to be:
"the Principia of Thermodynamics". [6]
Formulated an equilibrium equation for chemical reactions as based on his analysis of the equilibrium of James Watt's steam engine governor.
Both parents died before he was 21.
A balance of two entities: the heat energy supplied to and the work energy performed by a substance [7]
the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state [3]
When - do I have to make this pristine SELECTION?

Where - do I need to be in life to optimally effectuate this PROCESS?

Why - am I innately HOT for certain PEOPLE, objectives, or occupations, etc.?
(A) Why do certain subatomic particles, atoms, or molecules DESIRE to be with other certain subatomic particles, atoms, or molecules?

(B) Through these DESIRE fulfillment processes is HEAT Q released or absorbed (and why)?

(C) Summing A + B, together with our curiosity of human life, we note that starting from an early age there are several questions that seem to forever build to encompass our daily lives:
Why is attractiveness A inversely proportional to intelligence I?  Why in any random high school, for instance, are the least physically attractive students typically found in math class, and the most physically attractive students typically found in English class?
For years we've had great success in measuring the potential, the capacity to develop into actuality, of such small reactions as:
Copyright © Institute of Human Thermodynamics and IoHT Publishing Ltd.
All Rights Reserved
Human Thermodynamics (Latin: humus = of earth + Greek: thermo = heat + dynamis = power) may be encapsulated as the qualitative and quantitative study of human life via thermodynamic analysis.  In this assignment is the understanding and science that humans are comprised in essence of fundamental particles organized according to the actions of fundamental forces

These processes are studied under the auspices of particle physics.  At the earth-bound energy levels, of 300 k, these fundamentals organize themselves into atoms and molecules.  This is the realm of physical chemistry.  Over the last 200,000 years, these atoms and molecules have coalesced, evolved, and enhanced, over time to form the self-defined psychological structures known through biological classification as Homo sapiens.  This is the domain of evolutionary psychology.  In the last 300 years, these structures have, of their own accord, come to discern their internal and external atomic and molecular structure, as modified along, through, and in evolutionary time scales, via heat analysis on the dynamics of engines.  This is the school of thermodynamics

Together, these diverse yet unified sciences constitute the study of fundamental interactions and their effect on the developmental, organizational, and interoperational kinetically designed patterns and directions of spontaneous fundamental particle work throughout the universe in its vast and seemingly never-ending expanse.
“Direct conversion of chemical free energy into mechanical work without such intermediates as electricity or heated gases is unique to life.”
– James Bailey & David Ollis
Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
We first study this system; and then ask:
1. which entity will be perceived as being physically the ‘hottest’?
2. which entity will be perceived as being neurologically the ‘hottest’?
“…whose name not only in America but in the whole world will ever be reckoned among the most renowned theoretical physicists of all times…”
Max Planck, 1918 Nobel prize physics
Suppose you’re married with two kids: Bc1 and Bc2; when, in certain circumstances, does it become in everyone’s best interest to get a ‘divorce i.e. to de-bond:
Hydrogen: H
Oxygen: O
Nitrogen: N
Carbon: C
1. a carbon dioxide molecule - CO2?
2. a water molecule - H2O?
"Any theory claiming to describe how organisms originate and continue to exist by natural causes must be compatible with the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics."
– Donald Haynie, Biological Thermodynamics
Central to HT is an equality called the combined law to thermodynamics: ∆G = ∆H - T∆S, also known as the Gibbs free energy equation, derived in 1876 by the famed theoretical physicist and chemical engineer Willard Gibbs.  The Gibbs free energy equation essentially measures the level of spontaneity for any potential chemical reaction or future molecular relationship at STP.  That is, it determines if a reaction is going to work or not, i.e. be energetically favorable.
"Variation of ∆G corresponding to the formation of a certain structure, which can be a supramolecular structure, a family structure, a structure of populations, etc., is a measure of the evolutionary transformation of this structure."
i.e. to try to make it work
Georgi Gladyshev,
Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, 1997

2H + O → H2O

Mx + Fy → MxFy

have potential?

Fy + W → FyW

Mx - - - Fy → MxFy

is it energetically-advisable to go back to that person:

MxFy → Mx - - - Fy

MxFyBc1Bc2 → Mx + FyBc1Bc2

F1F2 → F1 + F2

or a two-friend bond?
a three-friend bond:

F1F2F3 → F1 + F2 + F3

F1F2F3F4 → F1 + F2 + F3 + F4

Which type of molecule is inherently 'happier':
Does time change with relativity in human life?  Does a molecule sleepWhat does a person have to do to find peace in this universe filled with chaos, rules, and laws?
Moreover, organic chemistry, the chemistry of carbon-centric molecular structures and processes, whose dynamics are situated on free energy calculations, is based on the premise that:
“structure determines reactivity”

In the human case, as we are definitively carbon-centric molecular structures,  it is a combination of both neurological and physical "structure" that determines reactivity.  Organic chemistry in human life is, therefore, a study of the relationship between the structures of molecules and their reactions.  Moreover, in agreement with intuition, statistically it is known that 66% of people agree that love, being the central process in human life, is a chemical reaction [13].
Gibbs, Josiah Willard (1839-1903) – US theoretical physicist and chemist who developed a mathematical approach to thermodynamics and established vector methods in physics. He devised the phase rule and formulated the Gibbs adsorption isotherm.

Gibbs’ function – in thermodynamics, an expression representing the part of the energy content of a system that is available to do external work, also known as the free energy G. In an equilibrium system at constant temperature and pressure, G = H–TS, where H is the enthalpy (heat content), T the temperature, and S the entropy (decrease in energy availability). The function was named after US physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs.

Gibbs-Helmholtz equation – in chemistry, a thermodynamic formula that relates changes in the free energy and heat of reaction that take place during chemical reactions. It can be used to calculate the heat of reaction if the change in Gibbs’ function and temperature are known.

Gibbs’ free energy or free energy – in chemistry, a state function of a system in chemical equilibrium. Changes in the value of free energy can be used to determine if a reaction is thermodynamically favorable.**
Gibbs Quick Facts
What is beauty from a molecule’s perspective?  What happens to the ‘essence’ or moral nature of an individual human molecule once it reaches its point of termination?  Is there something beyond chance that draws two people together?  Does an ozone molecule O3, when floating about the universe, have a free will or ‘choice’ as to its path in life?  Is one’s occupation supposed to feel like destiny?  Does nature regulate evil?
With an understanding of this relationship, we are able to make predictions about molecules and reactions that are new to us.  Subsequently, as humans are definitively 26-element biomolecules that react over substrate [see: Molecular Evolution Table], i.e. "human molecules", a term coined by French philosopher Hippolyte Taine in 1869, it is a matter of logical reasoning that quantitative formulations and predictions on "potential" human interactions (reactions) will have significant, time saving, and quality improving meaning [14].  For comparison, the de-bond rate for first marriages in the US is 43% at 15-years [15].  Scientifically, from the get-go, marriages, i.e. unions (reactions), that end quickly in divorce are less thermodynamically stable than as compared to more energetically-favored marriages (reactions) that continue to ignite for 50-years or more.**

One of the first to follow this line of reasoning was English physicist C.G. Darwin, the grandson of English naturalist Charles Darwin, who in his 1952 book The Next Million Years argued for the future development of a type of human statistical thermodynamics, in which statistical mechanics could be used to predict the future course of evolution reactions between human molecules in the next million years to come.
“You are a big chemical reaction.  Everything you say, all that you do, all that you see, decide or remember, think or feel is nothing but the manifestation of the chemical reaction that is you.”
Jim Eadon
BS Physics, Sheffield University
MS Solid State Physics/Computer Science, Newcastle Upon Tyne University
How - will I know with absolute certainty that I will make the right CHOICE?
  Sadi Carnot [1796-1832]
Founder of the science of Thermodynamics
His 1824 paper On the Motive Power of Fire established that motive power is due not to the consumption of caloric, i.e. heat, but rather to the "transportation" of caloric from a warm body to a cold body, so its re-establishment of equilibrium.
Originated the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Quick Facts
As HT is based in the fundamental laws of the universe, it has the theoretical capacity to answer any query about, related to, or regarding human life. 
Sadi Carnot [1824]
French Physicist, Father of Thermodynamics
“To HEAT are due the vast movements which take place on the earth.” [4]
“To HEAT are due the vast movements which take place on the earth.” [4]
In life, many processes are possible.  A regulating cornerstone of life is the conservation of energy or the first law of thermodynamics.  However, experience has shown that not all processes that satisfy the conservation of energy are possible.  Real processes must also satisfy both the second and the third laws of thermodynamics.  Human life, in all its splendid and subjacent glory, is one of the processes governed by these laws. 
Founder of the science of Psychodynamics.
His 1915 paper Repression established the concept of the "libido", or sexual energy, as being the central thermodynamic driving force in life.
His 1923 book The Ego and the Id posited a first-ever tripartite energetic division of the mind situated upon conflicting and actuating parts.
Originated the application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the realm of conserved conscious and unconscious and mental processes.
Freud Quick Facts
  Sigmund Freud [1856-1939]
HT Article: "Freud's Psychodynamic Theory" [1873-1923]
"By the pressure of an instinct, we understand its motor factor the amount of force or the measure of the demand for work which it represents.  The aim of an instinct is in every instance satisfaction, which can only be obtained by removing the state of stimulation at the source of the instinct."
– Sigmund Freud, Instincts and Their Vicissitudes (1915)
According to Gibbs, from the opening sentence of his famed 1876 paper "the comprehension of the laws which govern any material system (of which all systems are) is greatly facilitated by considering the energy and entropy of the system in the various states of which it is capable."  This fundamental sentence constitutes the starting point for any analysis of human life.  In short, according to Gibbs, for any system one only needs to determine the energy and entropy quantifiers effecting the state of the system, from this the “criteria of equilibrium and stability”, and hence the conditions for spontaneous change, i.e. reaction, change, or evolution.
Central pioneer in the science of Human Thermodynamics.
Grandson of English naturalist Charles Darwin.
His 1952 book The Next Million Years was the first-ever publication to outline a theory in which "human molecules", in a statistical sense, are said to be governed by the "laws of human thermodynamics".
C.G. Darwin Quick Facts
  Charles Galton Darwin [1887-1962]
The first to apply the principles of thermodynamics to human life was the Austrian psychoanalysist Sigmund Freud, who in 1874 began to affix the first law of thermodynamics to human psychological processes and in doing so developed psychodynamics, a precursor to human thermodynamics.  To summarize Freud's life from a human thermodynamic point-of-view, in his own words: “when I was young, the only thing I longed for (desire) was philosophical knowledge, and now that I am going over from medicine to psychology I am in the process of attaining it.” [5]
Human Thermodynamics Pioneers
(Jan. 29th, 2009 video (3:24) by American chemical engineer Libb Thims)