[2E] The American Heritage, 4th Ed. (2000). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
[3E] Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, © 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
[4E] WordNet ® 2.0, © 2003 Princeton University.
[5E] Whitrow, G. J. (2003). What is Time? New York: Oxford University Press.
[6E] Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary. (1998). New York: DK Publishing.
[7E] The Essential Dictionary of Science. (2004). New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
[Britannica] Hoiberg, Dale (Senior Editor) (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica 2002—Deluxe Edition [CD-ROM].
[Avery] Avery, J. (2003). Information Theory and Evolution. New Jersey: World Scientific.
[GG1] Gladyshev, Georgi P. (1999). On Thermodynamics, Entropy and Evolution of Biological Systems: What is Life from a Physical Chemist’s Viewpoint. Journal of Entropy, Vol 1. 9-20.
[GG2] Gladyshev, Georgi P. (2002). Thermodynamic Self-organization as a Mechanism of Hierarchical Structure Formation of Biological Matter. Moscow: Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics.
[IP] Prigogine, Ilya (1984). Order Out of Chaos – Man’s New Dialogue With Nature. New York: Bantam Books, Inc.
[LT] Thims, Libb (2006). Human Thermodynamics: VI-III. Chicago: IoHT Publishing.
[PP] Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z Dictionary of Thermodynamics. New York: Oxford University Press.
[RC] Chang, Raymond. (1998). Chemistry 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[RB] Baierlein, Ralph. (1999). Thermal Physics (textbook). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[Wiki] www.wikipedia.com – The World’s Largest (community-built) Online Encyclopedia.
[SS] Sandler, Stanley. (1989). Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics 2nd Ed. (textbook). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
[ZS] Sardar, Ziauddin. (2004). Introducing Chaos. Thriplow, Royston UK: Totem Books.
Quasi-equilibrium – having some resemblance to equilibrium, in some sense or degree, by possession of certain attributes [GG2 + MW].
Quasistatic Equilibrium Process – a process is called quasi-static when it follows a succession of equilibrium states; the surroundings may be irreversibly altered during the process so that after a return path, the universe ends up in a final state which differs from its initial state [PP].
Quasistatic Process – a process in which a system goes through a succession of equilibrium states [SS].
Disequilibrium – an unstable situation in which forces do not cancel one another [4E].
Secular Equilibrium – the state of balance between production and decay of a radioactive element in a given environment such that the total amount present is constant [5E].
Simultaneous Stable / Unstable Equilibria – in economics, situations in which supply and demand curves intersect more than once [Wiki].
Social Equilibrium – a state in which a social system, embracing a fixed number of people and a fixed number of roles, is operating efficiently owing to the mutually supportive or congruous actions of its elements [Britannica].
Stable Equilibrium –
1. the absolute minimum of the thermodynamic potential [PP].
2. a system is said to be in a state of stable equilibrium when it is impossible to modify its state permanently without simultaneously also modifying its surroundings permanently. The second law states that a constrained system evolves spontaneously towards a state of stable equilibrium which is unique. In order to find it, we have to look for the minimum of a thermodynamic potential function, whose nature depends on the constraints imposed on the system [PP].
Static Equilibrium –
1. a synonym for mechanical equilibrium [Wiki].
2. supply and demand relationships in economies showing little change [Wiki].
3. a state where there is no motion (as in an object resting on the floor). [E7].
Equilibrium Sense - a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head [synonyms: labyrinthine sense, vestibular sense, sense of balance, sense of equilibrium] [4E].
Equilibrium Constant – a number that expresses the relationship between the amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium in a reversible chemical reaction at a given temperature [MW].
Punctuated Equilibrium –
1. evolution that is characterized by long periods of stability in the characteristics of an organism and short periods of rapid change during which new forms appear especially from small sub populations of the ancestral form in restricted parts of its geographic range [MW].
2. a theory of evolution which postulates that changes such as speciation can occur relatively quickly, with long periods of little change—equilibria—in between [1E].
(Gradualistic) Equilibrium – evolution of a new species by gradual accumulation of small genetic changes over long periods of time [MW].
Metastable Equilibrium – states of other minima of the thermodynamic potential [PP].
Undifferentiated Equilibrium – situations wherein it is possible to modify a state variable without a change in the surroundings [PP].
Unstable Equilibrium – outside of the extrema, there is no possible equilibrium and the states are merely unstable: the system evolves spontaneously towards an equilibrium, stable or Metastable, although the evolution may be very slow.
Equilibrium Thermodynamics – a term synonymous with ‘thermodynamics’, referring to quasistatic processes, which are idealized, infinitely slow processes [Wiki].
Chemical Equilibrium –
1. a state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal [RC].
2. the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction, resulting in no net change in the amount of each compound [Wiki].
3. associated to matter exchange and parameterized by chemical potential [Wiki].
Dynamic Equilibrium –
1. the condition in which the rate of forward process is exactly balanced by the rate of a reverse process [RC].
2. a steady state maintained by constant, thought opposing, changes [7E].
Psychological Equilibrium – a state in which some balance between desires and satisfaction is important; somewhat paradoxically complete satisfaction may not be ideal, it can be argued that perhaps it is better if things are left to be desired [Wiki].
Reflective Equilibrium – in ethics, a state in which the consequences of one's general principles are consistent with one's opinions about individual cases [Wiki].
Conversational Equilibrium - in a conversation, a balance between talking and listening [Wiki].
Relationship Equilibrium - in personal relationships, a balance between giving and taking [Wiki].
General Equilibrium – in theoretical microeconomics, and of various theories attempting to explain relationships between production, consumption, and prices of a stable variety in whole economies [Wiki].
Physical Equilibrium – a system of physical balance in humans and animals being maintained with the aid of the sense of balance [Wiki].
1. time-dependent open systems involving irreversible transformations; also stationary states where there are nonzero forces, flows, and entropy production, but no time variation [Wiki].
2. systems characterized by time-dependent processes [Wiki].
Far From Equilibrium –
1. situations wherein matter behaves in specific and unique ways [IP].
2. states of systems, subjected to flows of matter and or energy, in the non-linear (i.e. turbulent) regime, wherein the system can lose its stability and evolve, being driven by internal fluctuations, into one of the many states available to the system [IP].
3. states wherein the molecules of the system may spontaneously begin to ‘coherently’ communicate amongst each other; as in color-changing chemical clock systems [IP].
4. turbulent flow regimes [LT].
5. regimes characterized by the formation of synergetic systems; i.e. systems that cooperatively work together [GG1].
Near Equilibrium –
1. situations in which matter behaves in a ‘repetitive’ way [IP].
2. linear flow regimes [LT].
3. (synonym) close-to-equilibrium – irreversible processes [GG1].
Weakly Nonequilibrium – the processes associated with structure formation of living systems through evolution [GG1].
Local Equilibrium – the hypothesis in which subsystems which are sufficiently small to be in equilibrium, while still being large enough that thermodynamics is applicable to them [Wiki].
Economic Equilibrium –
1. a supply and demand balance [Wiki].
2. a balance between supply ‘forces’ and demand ‘forces’ [Wiki].
3. the state of the system in which a market ‘clears’, being the case where a market for a product has attained the price where the amount supplied of a certain product equals the quantity demanded [Wiki].
Market Disequilibrium – a situation in which there exists a supply shortage or excess demand [Wiki].
Underemployment Equilibrium – a Keynesian macroeconomic terminology wherein a surplus of labor, i.e. cyclical unemployment, coexists for a long period of time with a shortage of aggregate demand [Wiki].
Partial Equilibrium – economic equilibrium that can exist in non-market relationships and be dynamic [Wiki].
Population Growth Equilibrium – a two-way balanced relationship wherein economic growth encourages population growth, and visa-versa [Wiki].
Mechanical Equilibrium –
1. the state of a body at rest or in uniform motion in which the sum of all forces and torques acting on the body equals zero [Wiki].
2. associated to work exchange and parameterized generalized forces such as pressure [Wiki].
One Point Equilibrium – an economic state coincident with perfect competition [ZS].
In Equilibrium – the state of a firm when its net revenue is as great as can be [ZS].
Nash Equilibrium – in game theory, an optimum strategy for all players in a game, in the sense that no one player can benefit by changing his strategy while all other players keep theirs the same [Wiki].
Undifferentiated Equilibrium – [PP].
Unstable Equilibrium – [PP].
Law of Stable Equilibrium – [PP].
Equilibrium Constant – [PP].
Local Equilibrium – [PP].
Mutually Stable Equilibrium – [PP].
Metastable Equilibrium – [PP]
Membrane Equilibrium – [PP].
Genetic Equilibrium – … the Hardy–Weinberg law?… [Britannica].
Relative Equilibrium –
Ecological Equilibrium -
Multiple Point Equilibrium -
Human Molecular Equilibrium –
Gravitational Weight – the force that gravity exerts on an object [RC]
Electromagnetic Weight – the force that photonity exerts on an object [LT]
Strong Nuclear Weight – the force that gluonity exerts on an object [LT].
Weak Nuclear Weight – the force that bosonity exerts on an object [LT].
Thermodynamic Equilibrium –
1. a state in which the energy distribution of the system equals a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution; thus allowing a single temperature to be attributed to the system [Wiki].
2. the state of a system in which its internal processes cause no net change in its macroscopic properties (such as temperature and pressure) [Wiki].
3. a state wherein if two systems are put in contact with each other there results to be no net exchange of energy and or matter between them, i.e., a state wherein two systems after being put into contact with each other stay the same [Wiki].
4. a condition or state of a system, where the properties of which do not change with time and that can be changed to another condition only at the expense of effects on other systems [Britannica].
5. a system with a given energy, in which the entropy is greater than that of any other state with the same energy [Britannica].
6. a state with a given pressure and temperature, in which the Gibbs free energy is smaller than that of any other state with the same pressure and temperature [Britannica].
7. a condition of a system where no heat flows between its component parts [7E].
8. death of a living organism [Avery].
Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) – occurs when massive particles are all in thermal equilibrium with each other (i.e. they may all be described by a single temperature) but the electromagnetic radiation field is not thermally equilibrated. A thermally equilibrated radiation field would have a black body distribution at the same temperature as the massive particles. The fact that the massive particles are equilibrated offers a great simplification in the calculation of the system properties, while allowing for more complex types of electromagnetic radiation to be described [Wiki].
Thermal Equilibrium –
1. a state corresponding to a uniformity of temperature, in the case of an isolated system, wherein resultantly entropy production vanishes [IP]
2. a state in which a system has settled down to a point where its macroscopic properties (as T, P, V) are constant in time, yet its microscopic properties (as individual atomic motions and fluctuations) may persist. [RB].
3. associated to heat exchange and parameterized by temperature [Wiki].
1. a situation wherein neither the system nor that of the surroundings evolves with time [PP].
2. the extrema of a thermodynamic potential function [PP].
3. a synonym for balance; being any of a number of related phenomena in the natural and social sciences, in which all influences on a system are cancelled by the effects of others; a situation which may or may not be stable [Wiki].
4. a state of intellectual or emotional balance [MW].
5. a state of adjustment between opposing or divergent influences or elements [MW].
6. a state of balance between opposing forces or actions that is either static, as in a body acted on by forces whose resultant is zero, or dynamic, as in a reversible chemical reaction when the rates of reaction in both directions are equilibrium [MW].
7. poise – Middle English: poyse (weight or heaviness);1200-1500; a stability between widely divergent impulses; easy self-possessed assurance of manner; gracious tact in coping or handling [MW].
8. the state of a body or physical system at rest or in unaccelerated motion in which the resultant of all forces acting on it is zero and the sum of all torques about any axis is zero [2E].
9. the state of a chemical reaction in which its forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates so that the concentration of the reactants and products does not change with time [2E].
10. mental or emotional balance; poise [2E].
11. a condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others, resulting in a stable, balanced, or unchanging system [2E].
12. a state of balance between opposing forces or actions that is either static (as in a body acted on by forces whose resultant is zero) or dynamic (as in a reversible chemical reaction when the velocities in both directions are equal) [3E].
13. equality of distribution [4E].
14. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another [4E].
15. a state of mental or emotional equanimity [6E].
16. a state in which the energy in a system is evenly distributed and forces, influences, etc., balance each other [7E].
17. an unchanging condition in which an undisturbed system can remain indefinitely in a state of balance [7E].