From the IoHT's top 150, ranked-by-vote, definitions of love, those definitions shown highlighted express the desire to bond. According to psychologist Erich Fromm, from his classic 1956 book The Art of Loving, "the desire for interperson fusion is the most powerful striving in man." Hence, theoretically, love is related to favored inter human bondings.
In this direction, the science of human thermodynamics is based on the hypothesis that humans are 26-element biomolecules which react, i.e. bond or de-bond, to form such structures as couples, family, friendships, organizations, societies, etc.; see: Molecular Evolution Table. From this perspective, when two or more humans, or more directly "human molecules", bond they become, by definition, one new molecule, having its own unique characteristics, definers, qualities, etc. Specifically, according to this theory, a couple bonded in matrimony should actually sense themselves to be one unique bonded structure more so than two separate entities. To provide a bit of intuitive evidence in support of this "dihumanide molecular thesis", in 2004 human-thermodynamic researcher Libb Thims conducted a survey on the intuitive analysis and colloquial understanding of Love (those results are shown above).
To be clear, what we are stating is that when a pair of humans fall in 'love', i.e. enter into a romantic ‘relationship’, they are no longer two separate individuals, but rather—they become one molecule. Furthermore, according to science of evolutionary psychology, which studies human mating behavior through both cross-cultural and human evolutionary perspectives, it is known that humans desire twelve facets of attachment, 7 physical and 5 neurological, in bonded mates:
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Gibbs, W. (1876). The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs: "On the Equilibrium of Hetergeneous Substances", Vol. 1, Thermodynamics. Connecticut: Ox Bow Press [HT Books].
Gladyshev, G. (1997). Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. [HT Books].
Haynie, D. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [HT Books].
Hwang, D. (2004). Journal of Hybrid Vigor: "The Thermodynamics of Love", Emory University: [URL].
Muller, E. (1998). “Human Societies: A Curious Application of Thermodynamics”. Chemical Engineering Education [CEE], Vol. 32, Num. 3, summer issue. University of Florida Publications: Department of Chemical Engineering [Abstract].
Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.
Thims, L. (2005-2006). Human Thermodynamics, Vol I-III. Chicago: IoHT Publishing Ltd. [HT Books].
Thims, L. (2005). "On the Nature of the Human Bond" [HTML], Journal of Human Thermodynamics [JHT], Vol. 1, Issue 5, pgs: 29-59. Chicago: IoHT Publishing, Ltd.
Clark, J. (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. New York: Barnes & Noble Book.
Top 150 Definitions of "Love"
In this direction, by simply counting the number of votes, correlating to those favored definitions, as indicated by double asterisks**, which imply that LOVE is defined as: two ‘entities’ uniting to form one ‘entity’, as in: ‘the perfect union of two souls’, we arrive at the result, which says, on the surface, that at least 27% of the populous (80/300votes) agree with the fact that two people in ‘love’, or in a strong ‘relationship’, are actually fused—such to be one ‘new’ unique biomolecular structure, i.e. a "bonded in matrimony" couple.
For example, in definition #67: ‘Two peas in a pod’, which was viewed to be a top-3 definition, the ‘pod’, by analogy, would be the combined human molecular orbital of the dihumanide molecule, and the ‘two peas’ would be the two physical bodies, i.e. the boyfriend and the girlfriend, moving about on a daily-basis within the ‘combined’ molecular orbital of the dihumanide molecule. This would be an example of: two ‘entities’ uniting to form one ‘entity’. In other words, people intuitively ‘sense’ the validity behind this bonded biomolecule supposition—and as many know: intuition is the fruit of truth!
Those definitions, as highlighted in grey, are definitions that we intend to prove to be veritable through the science of human thermodynamics. Definitions, as highlighted in yellow, can currently be explained using existing fields of study. For example, definition #95: ‘A biochemical reaction designed to propagate the species’, can be explained using biochemistry: two germ cells uniting to form one zygote, and biology: survival of the fittest.
Lastly, the reader should have noted, that the answers to garnish the most votes, i.e. the top-six definitions, held the following five key words: LIFE, CARE, FRIENDSHIP, UNION, and FAMILY. In other words, the essence of basic human chemical reaction is the production of ‘LIFE’. Similarly, when bonded to someone, you are going to ‘CARE’, i.e. provide painstaking watchful attention and concern, about your bonded mate, family member, or good friend, etc., more so then yourself—because they in fact—are yourself! In addition, when bonded, there must exist an extreme amount of mutual FRIENDSHIP, if the bond is to be of a ‘stable type’. The Dodecabond Theory explains the UNION part. And obviously, internal, and extended FAMILY, all associate via interconnected, mutually symbiotic bonds, and interrelated reaction paths. Thus, we find agreement between thermodynamics and LOVE.
"YOU TRULY LOVE SOMEONE
WHEN YOU’D BE WILLING TO GIVE YOUR LIFE FOR THEM!"
Bainbridge, D. (2001). Making Babies - the Science of Pregnancy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Barnes, Julian (1991). Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [British Television Critic: 1946-].
Barton, P. (1998). "Paul Barton's Definition of Love" [URL]
Chamfort, Nicolas. (1795). Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [French Playwright: 1770-1794].
Congreve, William (1700). Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [English Neoclassical Dramatist: 1670-1729].
Hepburn, A. (1945). Source: Audrey Hepburn - an Intimate Portrait [biography]. New York: Carol Publishing Book.
Hoffman, E. & Weiner, M. (2003). The Love Compatibility Book - the 12 Personality Traits That Can Lead to Your Soul Mate. Novato, California: New World Library.
Greene, R. (2003). The Art of Seduction. New York: Penguin Books.
Gibson, S. (2001). The Writer's Choice: "Definition of Love" [URL].
Johnson, Samuel (1750). Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [English Literary Critic: 1709-1784].
Lowndes, L. (1995). How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You. Chicago: Contemporary Publishing Group, Inc.
Margulis L. & Sagan, D. (1995). What is Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Margulis L. & Sagan, D. (1997). What is Sex. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Miller, G. (2000). The Mating Mind - How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. New York: Anchor Books (Random House Inc.).
Sri Chinomy Poetry (2004). "The Definition of Love" [URL].
Segal, E. (1970). Movie: Love Story. Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [US Writer: 1939-].
Wilhelm, Leibniz (1710). Source: Microsoft Encarta - Book of 25,000 Quotations. [German Philosopher and Mathematician: 1646-1716].
Regarding the general consensus, see '05 Poll: Is Love a Chemical Reaction?, as to whether or not LOVE is a chemical reaction, note the following misinformed 2001 Q&A Discussion between Jason (age 7) and Tamara a graduate physics student from the physics/engineering department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign:
Is love a purely chemical reaction?
A: Jason -
No, I don't think so. There are certainly chemical elements involved in the physical attraction between two people, as pheromones and hormones. But scientists are hard-pressed to find a physiological basis for any emotion, especially love. That's not to say that the basis couldn't be out there, but we're no where close to figuring it out yet. So for the time being, this is more a question in the realm of philosophy than science - but I think you could ask anyone who's ever been in love, and they'd probably agree that there's something more to it than simple chemistry.
My favorite one was "the home you find in someone." I definitely agree with "a spell casted upon someone." And the one that said "a biochemical reaction designed to propagate a species" DEFINITELY made me think. Could that really be true? That's crazy. I never thought about it like that.
WHAT IS LOVE?
VOTES[100 People, 300 Votes]
Someone you'd give your LIFE for
To care about a person more than you CARE about yourself
Love Website: Love is a Force, Dictionary of Love, Love Links, etc. [URL]
Links-2-Love Website: Love Polls, Articles, Love-related stuff, etc. [URL]
[leave your comments here]
Accordingly, via human thermodynamics, which can be defined as the study of the energy transformations in human life as understood to be a series of interconnected bond forming and bond breaking relationships, or reactions, through all facets of human experience, as in: marriages, friendships, occupations, family relationships, societal bonds, etc., we have a scientific method for intelligent inquiry into the workings, mechanisms, and underpinnings of human interactions, particularly love.
As noted (above) young seven-year-old Jason was given the wrong information. To set the record straight, without going into too much detail, love is definitely, without any doubt, a purely chemical reaction.
Definitively, the process of love, or exergonic productive bonding activity in accordance with virtue, being energetically modeled via a reaction coordinate, functions according to the following human chemical reaction; where, as shown, the lives of two human molecules kinetically impact over catalytic substrate and a stable union results – a dodecabonded union:
As we see, in combination with something called collision theory, for two human molecules [Mx or Fy], moving with a certain velocity and direction over the surface (substrate) earth, to react, their lives have to collide with enough energy, i.e. potential energy acquired through "raising" oneself, to break the preexisting bonds so to form a new relationship. When successful collisions have sufficient energy, i.e. activation energy, at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds, resulting in the products of the reaction, then subsequently a happily married "bonded in matrimony" couple forms. Hence, we have a purely chemical reaction of LOVE!!!
By comparison, for example, in the Haber process, the two-element molecule ammonia (NH3) is synthesized over a sheet of iron (Fe) embedded with a few oxides of potassium (K). Through this reaction, a reaction analogous in principle to the typical human molecular chemical reaction or formation of the human molecular ‘couple’, we have the following steps:
First: gaseous hydrogen molecules (H2) and gaseous nitrogen molecules (N2), being somewhat evolutionary molecular ancestors to human molecules, touch down and 'attach' to the metal sheet (earth substrate is 33.7% iron by mass). This is similar to how a human molecule is born, then bonds to society, then attaches to a location (house) on surface of the substrate (earth) via a mortgage, typically.
Second: because of this attachment to the surface, kind of like a human molecule eating and raising his or herself to maturity, these ‘attached molecules’ modify themselves via atomic, molecular, photonic exchange with the surface.
Third: in their reactive state, these substrate-enhanced molecules 'loosen' up a bit, i.e. get a little ‘wild’, and then in this enhanced ‘state’ begin to interact, i.e. react, with each other to form the bound state structure "ammonia molecule" (NH3); in the human case, the bonded "dihumanide molecule" forms.
Fourth: when the reaction is done, and the substrate has been modified a bit, kind of like a pre-cursor to human 'waste', the newly formed nitrogen molecule detaches as a happily formed unit, and floats off leaving a kind of possible modified 'residue' or structural change on the substrate surface. In analogous fashion, after the preliminary substrate-attaching courting stage, the happily formed unit "the bonded human molecular couple" goes off as a stable pair to engage in life as a single structural entity—the "family".
Why do we need 150 Definitions of this seemingly-simple four letter word? Answer, in the words of the American, German-born, psychoanalyst Erich Fromm [1900-1980]:
PSYCHOLOGY OF LOVE
 Blanton, S. (1955). To Love or Perish. New York: Simon & Schuster.
 Fromm, E. (1990). Man for Himself: An Enquiry Into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Owl Books
 Porteus, E. (1987). My Twentieth Century Philosophy. New York: Carlton Press, Inc.
Male Human "Molecule"
Female Human "Molecule"
According to Fromm, “true” love has five basic elements: life, care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge. Moreover, Fromm’s top definition of love is: “Interpersonal union in which individuality and personal integrity are preserved”. As we see, Fromm intuitively hits upon three of the top six definitions defined herein. Fromm states, that to love a person productively, i.e. efficiently, implies to care and to feel responsible for his or her life, not only for his or her physical existence but for the growth and development of all his or her powers. Regarding knowledge, we must know the person to respect him or her and to be aware of his or her individuality and uniqueness. Knowledge of the other person, secures power, and power by definition signifies the ability to attract, thus characterizing a quality bond.
Another to have written in depth about love is American psychiatrist Smiley Blanton [1882-1966] who in his 1955 book “Love or Perish” defines love as: “The great combining force that seeks to join all parts together. It is the power that reaches out to build and construct. Love is the immortal flow of energy that nourishes, extends, and preserves”. According to philosopher and human thermodynamic researcher Elizabeth Porteus, who studied Blanton’s work in great deal, his definition of love describes the relation in which two or more human beings unite to follow the creative impulse inherent in life to join, arrange, harmonize, and unify. Where, as she states, as long as the sexual union takes place because of the impulses of both partners, it is marvelous . Here we find connection between love and psychology.
“There is hardly any word which is more ambiguous and confused than the word love.”
seXuality (testosterone-to-estrogen ratio compatibility)
Latitude of Development (immune system compatibility)
Personality, Social Graces, Character & Dependability
Occupation, Possessions, or Money
Information, Intelligence, Education, or Knowledge
Status or Prestige
Inner Nature, Values & Ambition
Statistically, 85% of people, at some point or another, will reproduce during his or her life . Not all of these people, however, will fall in love. When polled, those who do will freely admit to not being the same person they were before the birth of their first child; in other words: “it changes you”. Chemically speaking, this period of change is called the “transition state” in which one’s molecular structure becomes reconfigured. In particular, scientists have shown that a person in love has vastly different neurological arrangements than as compared to the same person before he or she was in love . Below, as determined via measured blood flow levels, we see those specific areas of central nervous system [CNS] which become active or inactive during each respective phase of the transition state:
NEUROANATOMY OF LOVE
 Thims, L. (2005-2006). Human Thermodynamics, Vol I-III. Chicago: IoHT Publishing Ltd. [HT Books].
 Bartels, A. & Zeki, S. (2000). "The Neural Basis of Romantic Love." NeuroReport 2 (17): 12-15.
 Fisher, H. (2004). Why we Love: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. New York: Henry Holt & Co.
 Tennov, D. (1979). Love and Limerence: The Experience of Being in Love. New York: Scarborough House Publishers.
In this manner, specific brain regions "work" to re-configure themselves before, during, and then after the transition phase of the typical human reproductive reaction. In general, whenever there is increased blood flow to any body part, it usually implies ‘growth’; conversely, when decreased blood flow accrues it typically implies ‘atrophy’.
The caudate nucleus motivates us to formulate and carry out goal specific plans, so to obtain desired rewards. The septum pellucidum releases the same neurochemicals we get when we eat chocolate, as phenylethylamine. The ventral tegmental area releases dopamine, a motivation neurotransmitter, which operates to focus attention, and to abound a person with energy. The anterior cingulate cortex is an area where emotions, attention, and working memory interact—it allows one to interpret other people's emotions. The insular cortex is where we register ‘butterflies’ in the stomach. Also, those structures, as highlighted, are the same structures that become active when a person injects himself or herself with cocaine or opioids . Essentially, being well into a successful reaction phase of ‘love’, 2.3 years plus, is chemically similar to doing a ‘line’ but without the side effects.
To recap, during the ‘transition state’, a person becomes neurologically-transformed into something new: the stable human molecular bonded, married, or united “couple”; and this process results to release a great deal of free energy [G], i.e. energy from a chemical reaction available to do useful work. Also, negative [∆G’s] correspond to successful bonds; and positive [∆G’s] correspond to unsuccessful bonds.
Lastly, we note that for the last 100-years, or so, people have been intuitively well aware of this transition-state/molecular-transformation description behind human bonding. For example, in the early 20th century, the famed Swiss analytical psychologist Carl Jung [1875-1961] states:
2.3 years inLOVE
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Ventral Tegmental Area
As another example, human mating-behavior researcher Dorothy Tennov, in her 1979 book: Love and Limerence, interviewed one newly love-smitten fellow who states: ‘My whole world had been completely transformed. It had a new center—and that center was Marilyn’ . Thus, to fall in love—is to be "transformed". As such, the latter state of love as contrasted with the initial state are two entirely different energetic configurations, the latter being the more stable of the two, and the difference in energy between the two states being the amount of energy released over the course of the reaction . Here we find connection between love and neuroanatomy.
"The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances; if there is any reaction, both are transformed."
In summary, although these discussions are only meant to be a quick tour, and although the above quote is humorous in source, in reality, it is thermodynamics more so than chemistry that determines the long term feasibility of any potential chemical reaction. Many couples may have good “chemistry” in the preliminary stages of their reaction, it is however a genuine fact that if their pairing is not “thermodynamically” stable well past the two-year mark it won’t hold. For example, when chemical engineers design and build multi-billion dollar chemical plants, to determine if those respective revenue yielding reactions will occur efficiently it is the thermodynamic quantity “free energy change” [∆G] that is calculated to term feasibility not chemistry; if the energetics aren’t there, a new and better reaction is formulated. No group of investors will contribute to a process that won't work. To recap, successful love correlates with favored bondings.
Hence, chemically-speaking a fully-bonded relationship would be termed a dodeca-bonded union. For clarity, note that the prefix dodeca- is the Greek term signifying the number '12'. Moreover, each variety of such may be precisely quantified via photon-electron interactions [QED], as is the case with all chemical bonds.
To see how close this Dodecabond Theory aligns with reality, the IoHT conducted a two part study; resulting in essentially the ranked sampled or polled opinion of 250 men and women (either directly or indirectly) with the question: ‘WHAT IS LOVE?’ [RESEARCH PROJECT #2: (2004)]. Note, these random survey participants, who were unaware of the author’s intentions (or this human thermodynamic project), and who were given no coaxing, whatsoever, such as to get ‘loaded’ answers—were simply asked point-blank:
‘What do you think the definition of love is?’
That is, in the first stage of this survey, Thims compiled a list of 150 concise answers, in random order, to this question, from a variety of sources: Live Respondents, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Quotation Books, Internet Searches, Discussion Boards, Love/Relationship Books, Sexual Selection Books, Proverbs, Research Data, Famous Sayings, etc. In the second stage of this survey, this list was shown, in random order, not having the sources attached, to 100 people [Northeastern Illinois University college students (55%), and random working class people (45%)] who were asked to pick ‘what they though to be’ were the best three definitions (in ranked order), where: 1=1st Best, 2=2nd Best, 3=3rd Best.
After collecting, pooling, and sorting the resultant data, we arrive at the (above) ‘ranked by vote’ answer to exactly what LOVE is. In addition, the (above) ‘KEY’ is helpful when analyzing the results. Also note, those answers that did not garnish any votes were left in their original random order as they were obtained. Similarly, each definition is accompanied by its source, that is, who said the definition; and any definitions indicating that the source is ‘Cupid’, means that the definition was thought-up by the author, or came from the author’s memory, or was pieced together from various random sources.
Note, that since all of these definitions of ‘LOVE’ seem to have, at least some truth to them, some more so than others, that we can confidently state: though LOVE is perceived as one of life’s most defining quantities—LOVE certainly seems to be one of life’s most un-defined quantities!
According to human thermodynamics, of which chemistry is a basis, humans are bound state biomolecules semi-attached to the substrate surface earth who 'react', with each other, through interactive bond-forming and de-bond relationships, friendships, associations, societies, etc. The typical formula for a human molecule is shown below:
The following videos, January 29th and March 03rd, 2009, by American chemical engineer Libb Thims, discuss German polymath Johann Goethe's 1809 affinity theory of love in the context of the science and history of human thermodynamics, and the equation of love (the measure of affinity) in a modern chemical thermodynamics sense, respectively.