Kaufman, William. (1994). Universe 4th Ed. (textbook). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
 Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.
 Gibbs, W. (1876). The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs: "On the Equilibrium of Hetergeneous Substances", Vol. 1, Thermodynamics. Connecticut: Ox Bow Press.
 Gladyshev, G. (1997). Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
 Thims, Libb. (2006). Human Thermodynamics. Chicago: IoHT Publishing Ltd.
 Porteus, E. (1987). My Twentiety Century Philosophy. New York: Carlton Press, Inc.
 Gladwell, Malcolm. (2002). The Tipping Point - How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
 Ramsland, K. (2005). "All About Evil - Equilibrium, Entropy, and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics." [URL]. Source: Court TV's Crime Library - Criminal Minds and Methods.
 Grun, Bernard. (1991). The Timetables of History, 3rd Ed. New York: Simon & Schuster.
 Vail, J. (2004). A Theory of Power. New York: iUniverse, Inc.
 Buchanan, M. (2001). Ubiquity - Why Catastrophes Happen. New York: Three Rivers Press.
 Thims, L. (2005). Field Data - Interview of 100 Chicagoans in '03 and '05 regarding lifetime substance consumption. Research Project #3 [URL].
Conversely, if by chance the company (i.e. the molecular structure) starts to absorb energy from the universe, say for example, the employees start to argue with each other, wherein such friction leads to a strike, which leads to bankruptcy, then many employees (electrons) will subsequently both receive demotions (transfers to higher floor jobs) and/or lose their jobs (i.e. get 'ejected' out of the structure). This demotion process is shown above (right). In this case, the residents of the region where the company is located will have to foot the bill for this unstable energy absorbing infrastructure of a company (i.e. the universe will have to put energy into the company to help it get back on its feet). Through this process, many people (i.e. electrons) deemed unnecessary will lose their jobs – most likely, the people on the top floor. That is, they will be ‘ejected’ from their jobs. Afterwards, the company will reconfigure into a new, more evolved, stable structure. In other words, as a result of this energy input, the company will be 'forced', owing to its destabilized structure, to change both its internal and external structure, proceeding through what's called a transition state, and to hence reconstruct into a more trimmed and fervent company.
To compound this picture, these department stores can move around. By such movements, nearby stores may connect selected floors to each others' framework, via 'orbital' air bridges, whereby through such viaducts the now 'shared' employees (i.e. electrons) may move harmoniously between the adjacent floors. Such connections form only if they will be mutually beneficial or symbiotic to both department stores. For example, if department store A has one employee working on its third floor and a nearby department store B has one employee working on its third floor, then these two stores may move towards each other, owing to fundamental interactions, and thereby work to construct an air-bridge between their respective third floors; thus those previously ‘single’ employees may now pair up to run both floors in a more time evolved, energetically coordinated, and efficient way. In this manner, by sharing employees, both stores become more stable.
In short, as large biomolecular structures (i.e. biomolecules), we are built out of collections of these little department stores, which are composed of specifically assigned layers of orbitals (or floors). To energize or fuel the operation of these collections of connected department stores, the sun, throughout the evolutionary course of our lives, slowly pumps photons into the hierarchically-structured biospheric matrix in which we as biomoleules live. The flow of these photons through this connected biogeochemical matrix, functions to move certain electrons (employees), in our human molecular structure (and connected matrix molecular environment), into more undesirable top-floor jobs. The cumulative effect of these employee demotions generates a sense of eminent and pending ‘agitation’. From this uneasiness, we are 'forced' to develop a visual picture of where we will need to be in the future (new bonding configurations and associations) so to predictably dissipate this pending ‘agitation’.
Back to our EVIL discussion, because of the sun’s photonic actions, we are ‘forced’ to make choices. The difference between each choice is varying degrees of resultant stability. The quantity that measures the difference between each choice is the change in the Gibbs free energy as determined according to how much useful energy is released through each choice. If useful energy is released via such choices, through working bond interactions, then such molecular structures evolve towards equilibrium or greatest maximal stability. The natural law that governs this process is called the :
Chemical Reaction Equilibria Criteria:
Evil, Structural Stability, and Predisposed Movements
To clarify, all molecular formations on the surface of the earth are built from three parts:
The nuclei, i.e. bound state protons and neutrons, come in various sizes from one nucleon in size up to about 238 nucleons; other than that, they don’t really change, but are moved around the surface of the earth by actions of the photons and how they interact with the electrons. Such electron / photon interactions result to form various arrangements and shapes of clouds or ‘orbitals’ about such nuclei.
Generally speaking, electrons are ‘happy’ when they are in pairs, close to the nuclei, and exceptionally ‘happy’ when such pairs are arranged into collections or ‘departments’ within each respective layer of the orbital cloud. You may think of the orbital cloud as a kind of department store, wherein each floor is maximized so to function with a particular number of paired employees. If there is more (or less) than the ideal number of employees (electrons) on each floor, the whole store becomes unstable. If all of the floors have the correct number of desired employees, the store will run well, be optimally stable, and exceptionally efficient. The rule for employee optimization per floor goes:
"Because of the human craving for stability, especially on the part of those who are in power and who benefit most from the existing order, nothing will give way in the fabric of existing institutions until the strife and discontent build beyond some threshold. The people do not rise up in revolution until their discontent becomes so great that they have no other recourse".
The term 'closed system' means that energy may flux through the system but not matter. The earth, aside from the occasional meteorite, by definition, fits this criteria. Hence, as living biomolecules confined within this 'closed system' we are subsequently regulated by this equilibria criteria [3,4,5].
Human Molecular Evil - Type 1:
A second factor which complicates this picture is that we as molecular structures, i.e. human molecules semi attached to the surface of the earth, are analogous to a moving collection of pool table balls, in that each ball’s movement (i.e. its life course) is already influenced by those balls that have previously impacted it, and by the balls that have previously impacted those impacting balls, and so on. Technically, this is not a perfect analogy in that human molecular impacts, collisions, and interactions are governed by the regulations of the electromagnetic force whereas, the pool table ball interactions are governed strictly by the gravitational force. These forces are, however, cousins to each other, making this a reasonable analogy. In other words, certain balls (or surface-moving human molecules) are, by no choice of their own, predisposed to move in unstable (i.e. EVIL) directions. This describes Type 1 EVIL.
For example, if we take a long, rectangular tank, with the right half of the tank hermetically sealed from the left half by a removable divider, and then pump 2990 hydrogen molecules [H2] into the right half and 10 hydrogen molecules into the left half, we will have what we may call a partitioned universe. Each side of the tank will represent a little world wherein each of those respectively confined hydrogen molecules will move about, bump into each other, and interact in specified ways (just as human molecules do in each respective, varied by population density, country) according to its constraints (i.e. which side of the tank it is on).
Now, suppose we remove the divider. At that instantaneous moment, what do you think will begin to happen to those hydrogen molecules on the right side of the tank? As we would intuit, they will begin to move in the more stable direction; that is, to the left or ‘GOOD’ direction. Not all of those molecules will however, move to the left, towards the direction of stability; some will be predisposed, via previous collisions and interactions, to move in the unstable direction; that is, to the right or ‘EVIL’ direction. Hence, according to this argument, there will always be a small percentage of molecules, human or otherwise, that will be predisposed towards EVIL through no choice of their own.
The total Gibbs free energy of a closed system at constant temperature and pressure must decrease during an irreversible process and the condition for equilibrium is reached when G attains its minimum value (dG)T,P = 0.
In this picture, the force part of the discussion describes the inter-personal (social) photonic network of bonds functioning to hold the group in structural unity. That is, there exists a social ‘force’ holding the group together. Hence, referring to Dunbar sized groups, by the snap of the boss’s finger, he or she has the ‘power’ to make those 150 people (a centi-bonded supramolecular occupational work structure) associate with each other in a cooperative manner over certain ‘distances’ of space (in the office or village) through a certain span of ‘time’ (the typical work day). This picture defines a 150-person human molecular structure with a corresponding measurable surface-to-volume ratio, being characterized by a specific efficiency [η]:
Here, efficiency is the ratio of the useful work energy delivered by the dynamic system to the energy supplied to it. Thus, according to the Principle of Maximal Structural Stability, if the boss decides that it is now time for him or her to become more powerful, he or she may acquisition another group to now solely run a 300 person group. Yet, as observation has shown, such a structure will be less efficient, because its surface-to-volume ratio will be too large to function efficiently. Regardless, the boss will start making more money and may temporarily overlook this detail. He or she may start to become more unpleasant to be around as a result of personality changes, i.e. neurological reconfigurations, and other factors. If the boss continues in this direction and keeps acquisitioning more groups, corruption and collapse will be inevitable. In his or her last days, such a boss (and the group) will be in an extreme state of type 2 EVIL; kind of like at the end of movie Scarface, or like the Emperor in the Starwars Trilogy who wanted to be all-powerful but who had to embrace the ‘dark’ side to do so, or like the Roman empire that wanted to rule the world, being all-powerful, but eventually collapsed in ruin after reaching its greatest geographical extent under the rule of the Trajan Emperor (98-116 AD) .
Klein, S. (2003). The Most Evil Women in History. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
Morrow, L. (2003). Evil - An Investigation. New York: Basic Books.
Russell, R. (2005). "Evil and the Problem of Suffering in Nature - Evil, Entropy, and the Laws of Thermodynamics" [URL]. Source: Physics & Cosmology. (theologically-toned article)
Shermer, M. (2004). The Science of Good & Evil - Why People Cheat, Gossip, Care, Share, and Follow the Golden Rule. New York: Times Books.
Twiss, M. (2002). The Most Evil Women in History. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
Watson, L. (1997). Dark Nature - A Natural History of Evil. New York: Perennial.
Accordingly, photons are like money, and the ‘rule’ in the department store is:
"The higher up in the building you work,
the less you make, and the more unstable your position"
For example, when working in the highest floor, you may be fired at any time. Naturally, all of the employees want to work in the basement (or a lower-level floor).
For an employee (i.e. an electron) to get a promotion to one of the more prestigious ‘lower’ floors, they have to ‘work’ for the company (the molecular structure) for a certain number of years; i.e. they have to expend a certain amount (or quanta) of energy. In this picture, as with the rest of universe, energy at the atomic level equates to photons. So for an electron to get a better job (i.e. a more stable position in the company) it needs to release a certain quantity of photons (i.e. expend energy) through its bonding interactions (work) with the company (i.e. the nucleus). This process is shown below (left):
● Basement = 2 Employees; i.e. one pair in the basement level, orbital one (called a 1s shell)
● First Floor = 2 Employees; i.e. one pair on the first floor, orbital two (called a 2s shell)
● Second Floor = 6 Employees; i.e. three pairs on the second floor, orbital three (called a 2p shell)
● Third Floor = 2 Employees; i.e. one pair one the third floor, orbital four (called a 3s shell)
● Fourth Floor = 6 Employees; i.e. three pairs on the fourth floor, orbital five (called a 3p shell)
Regarding power[P] as it relates to human groups, structured in a hierarchical manner, typically within each structured group one person will be in charge and have 'power' over all members in the group. Accordingly, power equates to force[F] times distance[d] divided by time[t], or:
Here we see a connection between group structural integrity, stability, and what we might call the development of evil. Furthermore, as many have intuited through observation, these connected interactions are a cold yet inherent part of the natural process. A point in case is South African naturalist Lyall Watson, author of the 1997 book: ‘Dark Nature – A Natural History of Evil’. At an early age, through direct study of Zulu and Kung Bushmen, Watson noted the cold precision of predator-killings, interanimal cruelty, and infanticide. From this base, Watson derives the notion that evil involves overstepping bounds or going beyond due measure; where at the heart of evil, as he states, are influences that destroy the integrity of the whole. Here, we refer to this as Type 2 Evil such that going beyond due measure correlates to going beyond the threshold point of maximal structure stability.
As criminal psychologist and criminal evil researcher Katherine Ramsland states, as based on her analysis of Watson’s work: 'evil is inherent within the natural order and that the behavior we see in serial killers, sadists, and genocidal dictators reflects certain natural principles.' In her opinion, such entities termed ‘evil’ are merely a manifestation of something in the system gone wrong. Where as she says: 'nature is tentatively balanced at best and when anything within the status quo challenges the equilibrium, what might be considered good in some contexts can become bad, or evil.' Combined, these authors reflect the opinion that :
If "good" is defined as whatever encourages "integrity" then whatever pulls it apart is evil.
Human Molecular Evil - Type 2:
Type 2 EVIL has to do with the ‘size’ of the molecular structure. There is a rule from physics as based on observation, that dictates that when structures reach a certain surface-to-volume ratio, they become unstable (it has something to do with explaining why Giraffes have long legs). The basis of the rule derives from competition between fundamental forces. When the structural integrity predispositions directed by one force begins to compete with the structural integrity predispositions directed by a second force, a competition on structural size limitations results.
For example, because the strong nuclear force within atoms is approximately 100 times more powerful than the electromagnetic force, a sort of atomic competition on surface-to-volume ratio structural size in relation to how big an atom can evolve to be results. Hence, in nature, because of this competition, the heaviest stable nuclei have just under 100 protons in each nucleus. This explains why uranium, with 92 protons, is relatively unstable and can easily be made to explode (the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 was a uranium bomb). By direct analogy, in the human molecular case, although here it's the electromagnetic force competing either with itself or with the gravitational force, we can visualize someone, or a group of people, becoming unstable and hence easily made to explode. We will term this universal phenomenon the:
Principle of Maximal Structural Stability
That is, such structures, after passing a certain threshold point, are ‘forced’ into a transition state, wherein their internal and external bonding constituency become ripped apart and subsequently reconfigured into a new, more evolved, time-efficient, ‘stable’ molecular configuration.
With humans for example, a 150-person interlinked human molecular structure is one limit for a maximal structure surface-to-volume ratio . This number is sometimes called the Dunbar Number. In such a structure, as in hunter-gatherers, the Hutterites, the Amish, the Mennonites, Army units, divisions in the Gore-Tex Company, etc., one person will typically be in charge of the group, but the real bonding in the group stems from personal loyalties, person-to-person contracts, and intra-group social relationships. Beyond this size (150), the type of inter-personal electromagnetic social glue, i.e. chemical bonding or social psycho-neuro-thermo-dynamic bonds [PNT bonds] specifically, described here won’t do the trick and instability will result. Such instability will lead to discord, which in time will lead to a feeling of darkness or EVIL within the group, which correlates to energy absorption. Absorption implies that energy is being absorbed from the surrounding system and used to break up the bonds that previously held the "stable" sub 150-person group together.
Moreover, this thermodynamically-minded theory of predisposed movement evil is a subtle but well-intuited irregularity of human life. As human thermodynamic researcher Elizabeth Porteus acknowledges, in her second law of thermodynamics minded 1987 book My Twentieth Century Philosophy, the whole process of evolution, which resulted in life and consciousness, took place only because separate units of energy gave up some of their self-determination to join together into coordinated groups. As she states:
Here, we have described newer perspectives on only two aspects of evil: surface-to-volume ratio evil and predisposed movement evil. This does not, however, encompass a full dissertation on the thermodynamics of evil. Our intention was only to open up discourse for further discussion. To close, as discerned by Physicist Mark Buchannan, in his book Ubiquity - Why Catastrophes Happen:
In recent years, many have intuited this apparent structure-stability correlation as it relates to corruption and the inevitable demise of exponential power relationships. For example, science researcher Jeff Vail, in his 2004 work “A Theory of Power”, makes distinction between different social structures as they correlate to stability. In particular, Vail contrasts the concept of the social rhizome, a web-like structure of connected nodes borrowing its name from the structures of plants such as bamboo and other grasses, with the social hierarchy, a pyramid-like structure having an apex as the centralization of power.
According to Vail, rhizome exhibits incompatibility with such critical hierarchal structures as domestication, monoculture-agriculture, division of labor, and centralized government. Related to the principle of maximal structural stability, unlike the hierarchy, rhizome cannot suffer exploitation and corruption from within because its structure remains incompatible with centralization of power .
Each node in a rhizome stands autonomous from the larger structure, but nodes work together in a larger network that extends benefits to the node without creating dependence. Hence, in nature, the rhizome or "above and below" network-root structure may prove to be more ubiquitous than the colossal hierarchic or top-to-bottom pyramid structure owing to the natural tendency to thwart the inherent instability correlative with the principle of maximal structural stability. From one perspective then, the rhizome structure has no inherent instability. It operates functionally self-sufficient but not isolated, cooperating but not controlled. The rhizome economy, combined with a self-awareness of control structures, may provide a real-world foundation of stability and freedom. In short, stability, as it correlates to the criterion for evolution “∆G < 0”, is the opposite of type 2 Evil.
Using this technique, although she was a poor orphan at the age of six, her original use of jersey fabric to create a “poor girl” look attracted the attention of influential wealthy women who were ‘predisposed’ towards her fashion, seeking relief from prevalent corseted styles of their time.
In this description, this predisposed pull operates under the auspices of the electromagnetic force; i.e., it takes a minimum of five photons, reflected off some image or photograph, to actuate a nerve impulse, triggering such ‘predisposed’ movement patterns. In a similar fashion, as predominately people are predisposed towards class we might also reason that a minority of people may be predisposed towards evil to certain extent, owing to analogous electromagnetic preconditioned responses.
As an example, recently in '05 a twenty-year-old female named Lisa, was caught with two kilograms of heroin and is now doing 8-12 in the federal prison system . This isn’t really an example of EVIL per se but rather there is a certain darkness about Lisa's outcome in life; and darkness is a close kin to EVIL.
A few months before this happened, Lisa was polled regarding how many substances she had tried, see: Top 45 Substances (tried by Chicagoans), she declared that throughout her life she had experimented with 24 various substances. Furthermore, in a way, as she explained, her path in life wasn’t necessarily her own choosing. She told of how that if her older brothers hadn’t put joints in her mouth (to get a laugh) when she was eight years old that she probably wouldn’t be where she is now. Thus, Lisa is an example of a human molecule predisposed towards EVIL or shall we say towards a rather ‘dark path' if life.
Thus, bulk unity of movement towards the direction of greatest stability will always outweigh the aberrant tendencies. Furthermore, whenever conflicting points of view between elements are flushed out, the associated elements are forced to work out their differences in order to find resolution in subsequent new bonding arrangements. As Porteus reasons, just as in any kind of conflict, consciousness of conflict among opinions will be accompanied by feelings of dissatisfaction, sometimes anger, and occasionally darkness.
According to Porteus, if you are a member of a group as a tribe, society, country, etc., you are part of that group out of the natural second law impulse for freewheeling energy and chemical units to join together. Hence, this integration process requires a plan of action, as in "lets join forces", "lets form a corporation", "lets be friends", "lets go off and start a new country", etc., but if a plan is to be put into effect and a few are not willing to conform, i.e. those human molecules predisposed with aberrant tendencies, either they must be persuaded to do so willingly or forced (electromagnetically) to do so by some sort of pressure, perhaps by threats or punishment. Whether it comes about through internal or external pressure, conformance to a plan is an inevitable consequence of evolved group solidarity .
Looked at through another line of reasoning, statistically it is known that when the same women is rated for attractiveness either photographed by herself or photographed next to a classic work of art, she will be perceived to have a higher level of physical ‘attraction’, pull, or lure if adjoined to a structure of magnificence, as determined via polled opinion. Hence, people are naturally predisposed towards class. This was one of the secrets of (Gabrielle) Coco Chanel who always made sure to be photographed next to a classic sculpture, work of art, or painting, etc.:
"when individual units move on the basis of their own accord, they move every which way like the particles in a gas. To move as a coordinated group, the individual movements have to be adapted to a pattern or directed by a coordinating focus, movements which are out of line have to be repressed or redirected."
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Coco Chanel [1883-1971]
In human life, evil is a function of the dynamic interactions of nuclei, electrons, and photons. In regards to the movement of structures of atoms and molecules and how this relates to the dissipation or formation of evil, the two newer points that can be discerned from American philosopher Lawrence Chen’s 2005 article "Evil, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Power", in his new book A Thermodynamic Interpretation of History, specifically regarding evil and molecular formations are:
1. Some molecular formations will always be Predisposed towards EVIL (type 1)
2. Striving to be All-Powerful will always lead to EVIL (type 2)
Both points correlate EVIL with INSTABILITY. As the sun is forever pumping photons into the matrix of human life (i.e. the biosphere), at a rate of 1370 Watts/meters squared (at the earth-atmosphere/space boundary) , there exists a trend for molecular formations to periodically become unstable. The reason for this generally has to do with the mechanism in which the absorption of a photon into the electron orbital of molecular formations results to make such formations more unstable. When a structure becomes unstable, it will develop an intense ‘desire’ to do whatever it takes to alleviate the feelings associated with this instability.