Reaction Rate: the change in concentration of a reactant or product with time.
Photon Bond: the type of fundamental force that holds human molecules together in bonded association, as in: marriage, family, friend, occupational, societal, or governmental bonds, etc.
Know of corrections, modifications, or  additions to these definitions?
Want to see more definitions?
Human Thermodynamics:
-------------------------------------------------------------    H    --------------------------------------------------------------------------


Hierarchic Thermodynamics:


HT Researcher:

Human Engine:

Human Molecule:
Temperature [T]: a measure of the tendency of an object or system to spontaneously give up energy [9].  Said another way, the property of a body (as in a human molecule) or region of space that determines whether or not there will be a net flow of heat [Q] into or out of it from a neighboring body (as in a bonded companion) or region and in which direction (if any) the heat [Q] will flow.  If there is no heat flow the bodies or regions are said to be in thermal equilibrium and at the same temperature (as in when there is no longer any passion in the bond).  If there is a flow heat [Q], the direction of the flow is from the body or region of higher temperature to the body or region of lower temperature.

Thermal Equilibrium: the point at which, in the system (as in two bonded human molecules), no heat [Q] moves from one body or region to the other. Specifically, a state in which the energy distribution of the system equals a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This allows a single temperature to be attributed to the system.  The process that leads to a thermodynamic equilibrium is called thermalisation.

Thermalisation: the process wherein particles, atoms, or molecules (as human molecules) reach thermal equilibrium through mutual interaction, i.e., via primary or secondary field particle exchange.

Thermodynamics: the study of heat, i.e. energy in transit, as this quantity relates to dynamics, i.e. movement resulting from the action of a force.  More broadly, the study of matter and energy transformations in all facets of existence.

Thermodynamic Evolution: the process of development, transformation, and growth of a thermodynamic system as it progresses in time from one thermodynamic state to the next. A hotspot presently in the science literature is the thermodynamic reasoning behind the mechanism of evolution (particularly human life) as it relates to the flux of thermal energy traversing from the sun:
Do-deca-bond: a state wherein two human molecules are optimally linked up or 'bonded' at twelve strong variations of electromagnetic adhesion -- seven enthalpic links and five entropic links (as shown below):
Fundamental Particles: elementary particles that approximately define the mass portion of the universe; there are twelve in total: 6 quarks and 6 leptons as tabulated below:
Or, as a second example (below), we could have the reaction coordinate for a man [Mx] going through a series of job transitions [A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I] over time:
-------------------------------------------------------------    T    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Transition State: the highest point on the reaction coordinate corresponding to that time period wherein profound molecular reconfigurations occur.  Through the start-to-finish process of a chemical reaction, the ‘transition state’ corresponds to the intermediate stage of the reaction in which reactants proceed through a continuous change in their relative positions and potential energies to be transformed into products.  The ‘transition state’ may be thought of as the intermediate configuration, or ‘activated complex’, between the initial and final arrangements of atoms or molecules in which the energy arising from interatomic and intermolecular forces (potential energy) reaches a maximum [8]:

Human Molecule Orbital:
-------------------------------------------------------------    B    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    D    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Di-human-ide Molecule: a stable bonded human molecular relationship in which there exists both constructive human molecular orbital overlap and mutually-symbiotic stabilizing field particle exchange; below, for comparison, we see the dioxide molecule (left) and the semi-bonded dihumanide molecule (right):
Bond Breaking
Liquid Molecules Reacting
H2O Molecules Interacting
Matter Interacting
Inception: 07/11/05
(a dodecabonded long-term 'stable' relationship assembles)
Source: Encyclopedia Britannica
-------------------------------------------------------------    M    --------------------------------------------------------------------------


Mechanical Engine:


Molecular Orbital:

-------------------------------------------------------------    A    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Activation Energy EA: is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.  In a typical human (romantic) relationship reaction, the reactants define the ‘single’ (A) unattached human molecules, the products define the full-relationship 'coupled’ (B) or marriage pair, and the activation barrier defines the minimum amount of energy needed to ‘spark’ the potential chemical reaction.  The time-span characterizing the activation barrier is technically called the ‘transition stage’ or more commonly the ‘dating stage’ or ‘love bird’ stage, etc.  Below, we see the energetic course of a typical chemical reaction:
-------------------------------------------------------------    C    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Catalyst: any stimulus or substance that enables the human chemical reaction to proceed at faster rate or under different conditions than otherwise possible without itself being consumed.

Cessation Thermodynamics [CT] the branch of human thermodynamics that studies the mechanistic matter and energy interactions resultant from the termination of one or more human molecules as found within the matrix of life as dictated by the first law of thermodynamics, the law of conservation.
Center Particles = bonded protons and neutrons
Rotating Particles = orbiting electrons
-------------------------------------------------------------    E    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    F    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Field Particles: elementary particles that carry (or mediate) the force which approximately define the energy portion of the universe; there are four in total: qluons, photons, bosons, and gravitons as tabulated below:
Fission: splitting; or breaking into parts (ex. the 'cessation' of a human molecule).

Free Energy: energy, derived from a reaction, free (available) to do work in the universe; defined by the equality G = H - T(S), where T is the ambient temperature of the substrate surface.

Fundamental Forces: the four (known) forces in the universe; they function to form bonds.

Fusion: unification; of adding together of parts (ex. 'birth' of a human molecule).

Fundamental Bond: the nonspecific terminology used to superficially describe strong or effective inter-human PNT bonds, as characterized by ‘fundamental interactions’ in the colloquial sense of the term.  Fundamental bond may be synonymous, in the general case, with bothphoton bond’ and ‘PNT bond’, depending on the caliber of discussion, when referring to inter human molecular bonding.

For example, associating with a person in one's ‘known’ network, typically 5,000 people per network on average [5], would be an example of fundamental interaction, as in for example a husband speaking to his wife; by contrast, unconsciously noting the dynamics of crowd movements, while passing through such a mass of people, would be an example of non-fundamental interactions between human molecules.  For comparison see: non-fundamental bond.

See ‘exact’ particle physics definition of fundamental interaction’.

Fy: the symbol for a female human molecule.
-------------------------------------------------------------    G    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Gibbs Free Energy G: a thermodynamic quantity that is the difference between a system's internal energy and the product of its absolute temperature and energy; the portion of energy of a natural system that can be used for work.
-------------------------------------------------------------    L    --------------------------------------------------------------------------


-------------------------------------------------------------    I    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    J    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    K    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    P    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    N    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Non-fundamental Bond: the nonspecific terminology used to superficially describe or characterize weak varieties of inter human molecular bonding.  As, for example, the primarily visual, partly auditory, expressway commuter bond that functions, via essentially photon exchange, to hold streams of cars in ‘connected’ lines of traffic; for comparison see: fundamental bond.

Nucleus: the denser usually central portion of any bonded associations of matter; as in one's home.

Nucleon: a nuclear particle; being either a proton or a neutron.
-------------------------------------------------------------    O    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    Q    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

QED: the abbreviation for the science of quantum electrodynamics, a relativistic quantum theory of the electromagnetic interactions of photons and electrons and muons.
-------------------------------------------------------------    R    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reaction Coordinate: a graph that shows the before and after change in the energy level of a system, molecule, or group of molecules over the course of a process as a reaction.  Below we see both 'stable' and 'unstable' reaction coordinates for the process wherein a man [Mx] meets or collides in time over the substrate 'earth' with a women [Fy] to 'react' or bond together resulting to yield a new product -- a child [Bc]:
-------------------------------------------------------------    S    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    W    --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Work [W]: directed energy change resulting from a process.  In human thermodynamic terms, the 'process' considered here is the series of human chemical reactions which define a person's life.  The 'directed' energy change referred to defines the total amount of useful or productive energy derived from the considered process partitioned out of the total amount of energy as exergonically released during this process after the section of energy lost to friction is accounted for; see examples:
-------------------------------------------------------------    U    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    V    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    X    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    Y    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------    Z    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bond Forming
Tell a friend about this page
Activation Energy

Bound State
Buffett Number
Business Chemistry
Business Molecule
Business Thermodynamics

Cessation Thermodynamics
Chemical Reaction
Chemical Bond
Collision Theory
Conditioned Response Consciousness

Dihumanide Molecule
Dodecabond Theory

Earth Molecule
Exodermal Regeneration Cycle
Non-fundamental Bond

Photon Bond
PNT Bond
Psychoneurothermodynamic Bond


Reaction Coordinate
Reaction Rate

Sloughing Hypothesis
Supra Human Molecular Organism
Supramolecular Receptor

Transition State
Thermal Equilibrium
Thermodynamic Evolution


Field Particles
Fundamental Particles
Free Energy
Fundamental Forces
Fundamental Bond

Gibbs free energy

Hierarchic Thermodynamics
HT Researcher
Human Engine
Human Molecule
Human Molecule Orbital
Human Molecular Spin
Human Thermodynamics
Human Thermodynamicist

Journal of Human Thermodynamics

Kinetic Thermodynamics

Law of Temporal Hierarchies

Mechanical Engine
Molecular Orbital
Copyright © Institute of Human Thermodynamics and IoHT Publishing Ltd.
All Rights Reserved
To clarify further, such simplified terminologies on the description of the inter-human bond, i.e. the ‘photon bond’, lead some to inaccurately think of human bonds as being mere visual in constitution.  This, in spite of the fact that approximately 80% of our sensory input is visual, is a misnomer.  More aptly, all variations of inter-human bonding are termed in mechanism: psycho-neuro-thermo-dynamic bonds [PNT bonds]:
1. Via thermo-logical action, an incoming field particle (primary or 'effective') or messenger carrier, either directly or indirectly photon mediated, being variations such as air-molecule pressure fluctuations, volatile scent molecules, thermal agitations of air molecules, direct photon transmission in vision, zeroth sense brain-wave absorptions, direct contact molecular impacts, etc., function to trigger a peripheral nervous system [PNS] response, i.e. central nervous system [CNS] focused nerve impulses.

2. Via neuro-logical action (i.e. connections of peripheral axons, dendrites, and nerve cells), electro-chemical impulses mediate a transfer of information to the CNS such to trigger a conditioned psychological processing of information.

3. Via psycho-logical action, i.e. directed thought processes, we as psychologically conscious beings ‘react’ accordingly, to be either repulsed away from or attracted to the previous thermal-mediated sensory information inputs, and / or to release a reactionary messenger field particle as: sound, a facial expression [reflected photons], a letter, a call, a physical object, an emotion, etc. 

4. Via dynamic action, i.e. movement, we are resultantly driven, out of reaction to these inputs, into our daily spheres of human activity, as spatially correlated to each own's unique substrate-linked human molecular orbital.  This constitutes the 'dynamic' aspect of human life.
In sum, these responsive fluctuations in balanced attraction-to-repulsion movement and action patterns, conjoined with messenger / field particle absorptions, releases, and exchanges, function to instill a realized or ‘perceived’ bond between such exchanging pairs, as it would be viewed from a macroscopic distance in space, in locational movement patterns over the substrate earth.

JHT Article, Vol. 1, Issue 5: "On the Nature of the Human Bond" [for clarification].
The first quote is a Cliff Notes version of CT, as voiced in an episode of Melrose Place; where after one of the character’s father died, he asked someone what she thought happened when someone passed away?

See: Chat Group: Ghost and Thermodynamics - i.e. discussion on the 1st Law and Cessation.
See: Cessation Thermodynamics - 2005 book

"It’s more like an energy transfer.  Even though my mom has passed away, I still feel her with me, even closer if that’s possible."
TV Show: Melrose Place [2005]
PNT Bond: the abbreviation for psycho-neuro-thermo-dynamic bond.

Potential: energy available by virtue of a human molecule's position in the electromagnetic field of human life.

Psychoneurothermodynamic Bond: the variation of human thermodynamic chemical bond in human life which functions mechanistically, via fundamental interactions, to comprise inter human bonds as they are effectively realized.  This term may be synonymous with ‘photon bond’ when speaking in general case of the forces of nature, which are four in number.  Abbreviation: 'PNT bond'.

This URL is the "glossary of terms" homepage for the Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Institute of Human Thermodynamics, related HT books, articles, discussions, and writings on thermodynamics and its applications to human life as contributed by accredited researchers, scientists, and writers in this field. 

'To Promote the Art and Science of Human Thermodynamics for the Betterment of the Human Kind'
[1] Gottman, J. (1994). Why Marriages Succeed of Fail - and How You Can Make Your's Last. New York: Simon & Schuster - a Fireside Book.

[2] Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2002) version 2.5, [CD-ROM]

[3] Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[4] Bailey, J. & Ollis, D. (1997). Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd. Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

[5] Barabasi, A. (2003). Linked - How Everything is connected to Everything Else: Business, Scinece, and Everyday Life. New York: Plume.

[6] Chang, R. (1998). Chemisty, 6th. Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[7] Clark, J. (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. New York: Barnes & Noble Book.

[8] Hoiberg, Dale (Senior Editor) (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica—Deluxe Edition [CD-ROM].

[9] Schroeder, D. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics. (textbook). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

[10] Grobner, M. (2005). Course Lectures: Human Physiology (Fall Semester). California State University.

[11] Source: Sony Corporation Information [URL]

[12] Cengel, Y. & Boles, M. (2002). Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach, 4th Ed. 3textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

[13] McManus, C. (2002). Right Hand, Left Hand: The Origins of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies, Atoms, and Cultures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[14] Lowenstein, R. (1995). Buffett - the Making of an American Capitalist. New York: Broadway Books.

[15] Barrow, G. (1988). Physical Chemistry, 5th. Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[16] Vail, J. (2004). A Theory of Power. New York: iUniverse, Inc.

[17] Nystrom, E. (2005). The Chemistry of Love. (Bioscience Explained, Vol. 2., No. 2.) Department of Endocrinology, Sahigrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Sweden. [] [URL]

[18] Ecob, R. (2005). If Chemistry Can't Make a Date, Physics Will!. Press Release [Aug. 11] Oxford University Physics Dept. [PDF].

[19] Gladyshev, G. (1997). Thermodynamic Theory on the Evolution of Living Beings. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

[Under Construction]
This glossary of human thermodynamic terms is a work-in-progress.  Please feel free to send e-mail, make requests, corrections, etc., on any and all issues, questions, or editions, etc.  Thank-you.
Biochemical systems, as human molecular systems, perform three types of work [1]:
Institute of Human Thermodynamics
Human Thermodynamic Terms

:: LIST ::
This enhanced terminology, on the photon bond, encompasses the more descriptive sequential nature of the inter-human bond; where through a series of steps we see the PNT bond operating according to a series of cause-and-effect directed or mediated actions:
"psycho" :: relating to conscious, i.e. 'aware', mental processes, actions, and activities.
"neuro"  :: relating to peripheral and central neurological transmissions and processings.
"thermo" :: relating to direct or indirect energetic photon mediated ‘exchanges’.
"dynamic" :: relating to spatial movement of the bound state physical body.
Key: Mx = Male Human Molecule, Fy = Female Human Molecule, W = Work, TH = T (hot), and TC = T (cold)
Photon: a field particle which constitutes packets (quantums) of energy in sunlight having both an electric field and magnetic field component defined as a unit of intensity of light at the retina equal to the illumination received per square millimeter of a papillary area from a surface having a brightness of one candle per square meter; pictorially-defined in structure below (left) and in origin below (right):
Atom: the basic unit of an element; comprising protons p, neutrons n, and electrons e.
The reaction coordinate shows the change in the free energy of the reacting system (y-axis) as it evolves through time (x-axis) for both a catalyzed and uncatalyzed reaction.  The shown high activation barrier represents the transition state that must be overcome in the conversion of reactants (A) into products (B).  Here, we note that catalysts do not change the overall energetics (i.e. thermodynamics) of the process – they only function to either increase or decrease the reaction rate, by either lowering or raising the activation energy barrier, respectively.

According to collision theory, for a reaction to occur between two colliding human molecules, they must collide in the correct orientation (time-optimized complementary physical and neurological human molecular orbital maturity), and possess a certain, minimum, amount of energy (achievement, preparation, education, etc.).  As the molecules approach each other, their electron clouds repel each other. Overcoming this repulsion requires energy (activation energy), which is provided by the heat of the system; i.e. the mutual physical and neurological energy of each molecule. If there is enough energy available, the repulsion is overcome and the molecules get close enough for attractions between the molecules to cause a 'rearrangement of bonds', in which the stable product (B) forms owing to a characterized or inherent overbalance of electromagnetic attraction to repulsion, typically a 5:1 ratio for stable married couples [1].
Kinetic Thermodynamics: the thermodynamics of processes related to atomic and / or molecular movements; as in reaction mechanics.

Kinetics: a branch of science that deals with the effects of forces upon the motions of material bodies or with changes in a physical system [2].
Conditioned Response Consciousness: reactionary consciousness resulting from a perceptual freedom from chain-like cause-effect energetic predispositions, weighted by the sum of past experience, which conditions one’s response today; whereby today's response conditions tomorrow.

CT: the abbreviation for either 'Cessation Thermodynamics' or 'Combat Thermodynamics'
Collision Theory: a theory that explains how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reactions alter.  For a reaction to occur the reactant particles, as human molecules, must collide.  Only a certain fraction of the total collisions cause chemical change; these are called ‘successful collisions’.  The successful collisions have sufficient energy, i.e. activation energy, at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds, resulting in the products of the reaction [7].

Complicalities: complications + technicalities
Chemical Reaction: a process whereby old bonds are broken, new bonds are formed, and energy is either absorbed or released into the universe.  More broadly, any type of chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances, as differentiated from other kinds of changes – those of position or of form.  Below are aspects of instantaneous points along various chemical reaction paths:
Chemical Bond: any of the interactions that account for the association of atoms into molecules, ions, crystals, supermolecules, biomolecules, human-molecules, and other stable species that make up the familiar substances of the everyday world.  When atoms and molecules approach one another, their nuclei and electrons interact and tend to distribute themselves in space in such a way that the total energy is lower than it would be in any alternative arrangement.  If the total energy of a group of atoms is lower than the sum of the energies of the component atoms, they then bond together and the energy lowering is the bonding energy [8].  A chemical bond between two atoms or molecules, A and B, is symbolically written as:

A-B (single bond), A=B (double bond), AB (triple bond), etc.

All chemical bonds, atomic or molecular, are constructed out of photon interactions.  These interactions come in many varieties:
To repeat, all chemical bonds are photon bonds in essential structure and fundamental mechanism; i.e., all chemical bonds result from nuclei-electron-photon interactions.  The geometrical arraignments of such interactions are what give rise to the varieties of chemical bonds; the larger the molecule, the more complex and varied the type of interaction.
JHT Article, Vol. 1, Issue 5: "On the Nature of the Human Bond".
Ionic bond – attractive associations owing to species charge separation owing to electron donation or transfer.
Electrovalent bond – a synonym for ‘ionic bond’.
Covalent bond – attractive associations owing to shared electrons.
Polar covalent bonds – attractive associations in which shared electrons spend more time in the vicinity of one atom than the other.
Nonpolar covalent bonds – attractive associations where electrons are shared equally by both species.
Coordinate covalent bond – a covalent bond in which one of the atoms donates both electrons.
Dative bond – a synonym for ‘coordinate covalent bond’.
Single bond – a covalent bond where one pair of electrons is shared.
Double bond – a covalent bond where two pairs of electrons are shared.
Triple bond – a covalent bond where three pairs of electrons are shared.
Quintuple bond – a metal bond where 10 electrons take part in the chemical bond.
Hydrogen bond – a special type of strong dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond and an electronegative atom.
Hybrid orbital bond – attractive interactions in which a blend of two or more nonequivalent orbitals of one atom or molecule bond covalently with a blend of two or more nonequivalent orbitals of a second atom or molecule.
Molecular orbital bond – attractive interactions of the atomic orbitals of the bonding atoms and molecules.
Van der Waals bonds – Dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and dispersion forces functioning to weakly hold separate species together.
Intermolecular bonds – attractive interactions between molecules.
Intramolecular bonds – attractive interactions within a molecule.
Dipole-dipole bonds – attractive interactions between polar molecules.
Ion-dipole bonds – attractive interactions between an ions and polar molecules.
Dispersion bonds – attractive interactions that arise as a result of temporary dipole induced in atoms or molecules.
Cohesion bonds – intermolecular attraction between like molecules.
Adhesion bonds – intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules.
Hydrophilic bonds – interactions between water-loving molecules in colloids of water.
Hydrophobic bonds – interactions between water-fearing molecules in colloids of water.
Metallic bond – favorable interactions between orbital shells which function to hold atoms together in a metallic substance.
sp bonds – metallic bonds in which the valence electrons are from the sp-shells of the metal ions; where the bonding is quite weak.
d bonds – metallic bonds in which the valence electrons are from the d-shells; where the bonding is quite weak.
σ bond – bonds between sigma orbitals.
π bond – bonds between pi orbitals.
Double-Helix bond – the bond between two strands of RNA molecules.
Dihumanide Bond – the bond between two human molecules.
Tetrahumanide Bond - bonds between an association of four human molecules.
Supra-molecular Bond - bonds between associations of many molecules.
Mega-humanmolecular societal bonds - bonds between associations of structured societies.
Fundamental reaction: an electron emits a photon [γ]; the top arrow shows the flow of negative charge; the bottom arrow shows the flow of time.
"So long as one of us lives we all live."
Movie: Spartacus [1960]
Chemical reactions are expressed by means of chemical equations which show the 'before' (reactants), 'transition' (>), and 'after' (products) stages along the path, time-line, or progression of the reaction.  The four basic chemical reactions are shown below, where each letter represents a different atom or molecule:
(the pair move-in together - one home: H)
(two people meet in their school orbitals)
initial orbital overlap occurs:
For example, in human molecular terms, below we see the partial mechanism for the transition state for the formation a typical dihumanide molecule in which two human molecular orbitals transition through a thermodynamic interact process.  Specifically, two people meet in their school orbitals - this leads to favorable interaction, where, over a series of steps, we have:
The difference between the energies of the transition state and the initial state is called the ‘activation energy’ (E) and represents the minimum energy that a reacting system must acquire for the transition to take place.  Said another way, the activation energy may be defined as the minimum amount of energy required to transform reactants into products in a chemical reaction. The activation energy thus can be visualized as a barrier that must be overcome by reactants before products can be formed.
In human chemical reaction terms, referring to a typical intimate human relationship, the transition state is colloquially known as the ‘dating stage’.  With every potential relationship there is an inherent energetic barrier to the formation of the fully-formed relationship; this is what we may call the human molecular relationship activation energy barrier, in which, for example, particularly peer-review is an important energetic factor.
(the two start favorably interacting: looking, talking, listening, etc.)
(they begin visiting each others friends' houses)
field particle exchange initiates + more orbital overlap and field particle exchange results
nuclear unification initiates:
the 'stable' dihumanide molecule forms:
List of top 33 places where a husband & wife might typically first meet each other.
Human Molecular Spin:
Supramolecular Receptor:
Physical Attraction Attribute Symbol
Averageness HAVG
Symmetry HS
seXuality [testosterone-to-estrogen ratio] HX
Latitude of Development (Immune System) HL
Fitness HF
Complexion HC
Neurological Attraction Attribute Symbol
Personality, Social Graces, Character & Dependability SP
Occupation, Possessions, or Money SO
Information, Intelligence, Education, or Knowledge SI
Status or Prestige SS
Inner Nature, Values & Ambition SN
H = HAVG + HAGE + HS + HX + HL + HF + HC
Tentatively, as a first approximation, the dodecabond theory posits these twelve human points of value to be correlative to the thermodynamic terms "total" enthalpy [H], i.e. the measure of the total system energy, and "total" entropy [S], i.e. the portion of total system energy that is unavailable to do work, as:
S = SP + SO + SI + SS + SN
G = [HAVG + HAGE + HS + HX + HL + HF + HC] - T[SP + SO + SI + SS + SN]
Combined, these summations give us an rough approximation for the free energy [G] of the system, being the instantaneous energetic measure of system's productive work output:
G = H - TS
Or, as commonly presented, the the change in the free energy of the system [∆G] which is the measure of the productive work output or expenditure of the system over the course of its evolutionary development:
In making these approximations, of human molecular enthalpy and entropy, we note generally that entropy, in standard form, is written as a summation of its component parts as.  For example, below is the standard entropy summation formula for molecules in an ideal gas, where trans = translational entropy, rot = rotational entropy, vib = vibrational entropy, and elec = electronic entropy [15]:
S = Stran + Srot + Svib + Selec
Thus, we can be fairly confident with the summation form of human molecular entropy (as shown).  Regarding human molecular enthalpy, our confidence is less sure.  According to standard protocol enthalpy [H], or total energy, of a system is not a quantity which can be measured directly.  Typically, heats of combustion of substances are correlated to enthalpy change [∆H] using a bomb calorimeter in which the substance is burned and the heat given off is measured [6].  The obvious drawback here is that we cannot burn a human molecule or better yet burn a human molecular system, i.e. sets of human molecular orbitals.  Yet, this does not preclude the likelihood that instantaneous measurements of a human system’s enthalpy [H], or energy content, are obtainable, as based on a standard of measurement.  In the human molecular case we are within the system looking outward; rather than outside of the system looking inward - thus, point calculations of enthalpy should be obtainable.

Loosely speaking, if we were to compare two humans and ask which of the two has more energy content in his or her life, the answer would be obtainable via measurement.  Thus, although more work is needed, here we present a linear summation; though the full human molecular enthalpy equation will likely be more complicated.  Note, however that the full synthesis of the calculation of human molecular Gibbs free energy will invariably involve a thermodynamic formulation of the famous: "60 Traits Desirability Table".  One can be found in the Evolutionary Psychology article [2003]: "Mate Selection Criteria: A trait desirability assessment study of sex differences in Serbia" [PDF].  Thus, an equation of the form: G = f{60 Mate Traits} will be the end derivation; as is tentatively shown via its functional thermodynamic components in the following: 60 Human Thermodynamic Traits Table.

Regarding the term 'dodecabond', i.e. twelve bonds, as it relates to human life, essentially we can derive this concept via extrabolation of small molecular bonds, i.e. single bonds, double bonds, etc., where each bond consists of a pair of electrons exchanging photons with their respective nuclei.  This is atomic fundamental exchange in its simplest form.  In the human case, each human molecule has over 10E29 electrons in his or her orbital, hence we use approximations.  Essentially, we can divide all of human life into two components:

1. Enthalpy Change ∆H components (physical components)
2. Entropy Change ∆S components (organizational components)

Together [∆H – T∆S] this quantity [∆G] determines the future or likelihood for any of various potential paths in human life.  In this direction, regarding one’s perceptual view in life or consciousness view of reality, as author Diane Ackerman, "A Natural History of the Senses", puts it:


To clarify further by example, below left we see the three element molecule adenine [C5H5N5] double-bonded to the four element molecule thymine [C5H6N2O2]; or in formulaic nomenclature: [C5H5N5]=[C5H6N2O2].  Similarly, below right we see the four element molecule guanine [C5H5N5O] triple-bonded to the four element molecule cytosine [C4H5N3O]; or in symbol format: [C5H5N5O]≡[C4H5N3O]:
Dodecabond Theory: a theory in human thermodynamics culled from evolutionary psychology which dictates that humans desire twelve facets of value in bonded mates, as shown by the following two tables:
In each case, the hydrogen bonds, shown in red, hold those molecules in place due to the attractive-to-repulsive balancing of forces related to the absorption and emission of photons [γ] between a pair of electrons caught in the bond, and those respective atoms adjacent to the bond; as nitrogen [N] and hydrogen [H], i.e. [N-H], and hydrogen [H] and oxygen [O], i.e. [H-O], in the [adenine]=[thymine] case.  In other words, the midline of field particle exchange, between any two molecules, defines the edge of molecular entity conscious perception.  Thus, at the edge of any human molecular consciously-perceived bond there is photon exchange.

Notice in each of these molecular diagrams, regarding the thermodynamic nature of the ‘total’ inter-bonding for each molecule, that each total union can be subdivided further into:

From this model one can build upward to the human-molecule case.  In human-molecule terms, for example, a blue-eyed girl will likely be attracted to a brown-eyed guy, i.e. a ‘physical’ component.  Or, someone insecure (shy) in social settings will likely be attracted to someone secure (outgoing) in social settings, i.e. an ‘organizational’ component or the complimentary ‘spatial’ arrangement of the bond related to the joint union of the two intellects - which function to organize the shape of the combined human molecular orbitals

These last two human analogies are prime examples of ‘opposites attract’.  Eye-color ‘attraction’ has to do with immune system dissimilarity compatibility; specifically, couples need to be dissimilar in their major histocompatibilty complex (MHC) to yield healthy offspring.  Social graces ‘attraction’ has to do with neurological insecurity strengthening compatibility.  In other words, if one parent in ‘strong’ where the other is ‘weak’, and visa-versa, the resultant offspring will be more diversified in these respects. 

As an example of ‘likes attract’, two people who both have a penchant for going to baseball games are going to be organizationally complementary in respect to that particular human-molecular movement ‘orbital’; hence they will bond strongly at that point owing to spatial complimentarity.  By analogy, below we see both ‘bonding’ and ‘anti-bonding’ hydrogen [H2] molecular orbitals:
Note, in each of these cases, where opposites attract and likes repel, that all of these relationship definers derive from the following three simple rules of charge interaction, occurring between nuclei (positively charged) and electrons (negatively changed) which form the structure of the di-human-ide molecule:
Opposite Charges Attract
Like Charges Repel
Like Charges Repel
Generally, when talking about free energy change in human life related to bond formation, two or more humans are going to bond, and energy in the form of ‘work’ is going to be released.  However, this is where the 'model’ gets very messy.  To correlate this work output to something tangible, as noted above, we use the ’60 Trait Desirability table’, which details in ranked order the most ‘desired’ quantities according to human conscious perception, i.e. field particle input.

Using this list of ranked human molecular qualities, we filter this list into crude equation form, and then filter the parts into the respective enthalpy and entropy terms; and from this we calculate crude values of free energy change, and hence ‘potential’ work output owing to human molecule pairings of theoretical human chemical reactions.  As based on this framework of logic, the dodecabond theory postulates, as a first approximation, that two human molecules involved in a full-on romantic relationship are connected at twelve fundamental links (or 60 broadened links) hence such a pair would be dodecabonded via fundamental exchange:
The shown human molecular formulas (above) are duplicate in presentation owing to the nature of the magnitude of each element shown in reduced form.  Using more finite calculation techniques, each human molecule would be defined with each owns unique molecular formula.
              Mx Fy
            male human molecule            female human molecule
(A → B)
Transformation reaction:
A > B

Debonding reaction:
A > B + C

Bonding reaction:
A + B > C

Complex reaction:
A + B > C + D
Presently there are three lines of argument in this regard:
The debate itself is deeply entrenched in paralleled logic and far from over.  It remains to be agreed upon as to what type of “equilibrium” process evolution follows.  As there is a continually flux of thermal energy through the earth system, one may argue that life’s processes are continually a great distance from equilibrium.  Conversely, through the study of fossil record, one may argue that life’s processes are punctuated and return to equilibrium in periodic cycles.  Or, as evolutionary change is gradual, one may argue for a near-equilibrium thermodynamic blend of reasoning.

From a biological standpoint, many approximate life to be a loose combination of quasistatic equilibrium, a process in which a system goes through a succession of close to equilibrium states plus punctuated equilibrium, evolution characterized by long periods of stability in the characteristics of an organism and short periods of rapid change during which new forms appear especially from small sub populations of the ancestral form in restricted parts of its geographic range. 

During the second half of the twentieth century, there have been three dominate thermodynamic researchers theorizing in this direction.  The first to break ground was the Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine who followed a far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics route, theorizing that living structures are an evolved form of Bénard cells (see Prigogine's [ Nobel Lecture 1977]) which formed owing to what are called bifurcations and fluctuations.  Prigogine’s most popular work is: ''Order out of Chaos'' [1984].

Contrasting with Prigogine, we have the Russian Physical chemist Georgi Gladyshev who in his seminal 1978 Journal of Theoretical Biology article "On the Thermodynamics of Biological Evolution" argues for a Gibbsian Thermodynamics theory of evolution via what is known as the ''law of temporal hierarchies'' which justifies the application of free energy equations of state thermodynamics to biospheric processes (i.e. Hierarchical Thermodynamics).  Gladyshev theorizes that living entities are large supramolecular structures governed by the principle that the Gibbs function of formation will tend to a minimum over the course of both ontogeny and phylogeny  (see ''Journal of Entropy'' [Article]: "Thermodynamic Theory of Biological Evolution").  Gladyshev’s most popular work is: "Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings'' [1997].

Conversely, we may also theorize about evolution from the near equilibrium point of view, as American ecologist and thermodynamic researcher Eric Schneider has done in his 2005 book ''Into the Cool – Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life'' [see: website]where we may argue that living entities are non-equilibrium thermodynamic dissipative structures which form owing to gradient degradation.  Schneider argues that owing to the second law variation of Le Chatelier's principle, because the earth system has a continually existent hot-to-cold energy gradient, that living complex structures originate due to the inherent tendency to resist the applied gradient.

Aside from this divisional debate as to which branch of thermodynamics governs evolution; there is also the “second law paradox” which questions the universal tendency for disorganization in isolated systems as contrasted with the universal tendency for organization in evolving systems.  There is no apparent paradox however for those as physical chemists and chemical engineers trained in thermodynamics.  The resolution of this paradox acknowledges that nature seeks to minimize free energy [H – TS] in open systems, which exchange energy with their surroundings acting as a thermal reservoir, and to maximize entropy [S] in isolated systems.  The paradox arises out of misapplied assumption that all systems are isolated.

See: Thermodynamic Evolution
1. Life evolved via far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic processes (Progoginean Thermodynamics)
2. Life evolved via near-equilibrium thermodynamic processes (Information Theory, Gradient-based Thermodynamics, etc.)
3. Life evolved via punctuated equilibrium processes (Gibbsian Thermodynamics)
U: the symbol for the internal energy of a thermodynamic system.
The photon bond may be descriptively termed a psycho-neuro-thermo-dynamic bond, i.e. a PNT bond.  Its mechanism of operation functions through the exchange of photons [γ], either directly (immediate electromagnetic waves) or indirectly (electromagnetic waves + atom / molecular transmittal mechanisms), via the twelve senses of human perception, which accrues to the effect of an inherent over-balance of 'attraction' to 'repulsion' resulting in the phenomena of 'stability'.  Photonic bonding, otherwise known as the electromagnetic force, is the second strongest of the four fundamental forces.  In human molecular bonding terms, its mechanism of operation is readily defined according to the science of quantum electrodynamics [QED], and its structure is visually-defined according to what are called modified 'Feynman diagrams', as shown below; thermodynamically-speaking, in human life:

"The bond functions as the engine"
“The connections, not the parties connected, may best represent our world.”

The networks of connections, not the elements connected, appear to constitute a more accurate map of reality.  These energies and connections may represent all that actually exists!  The connections, the power relationships between perceived “entities” make up the world around us, not the illusion of particles.
– Jeff Vail,  A Theory of Power [2004]
"Anyone's romantic life can be reduced to a series of transitions, or 'transition states', e.g. twice-divorced and now single." [18]
– Richard Ecob,  Physicist, Oxford University [2005]
Human Thermodynamicist:
HT Excerpt: Human Chemical Reaction
JHT: abbreviation for the Journal of Human Thermodynamics.

Journal of Human Thermodynamics: an online journal started in August of 2005 dedicated to articles on or related to the thermodynamics of human life [URL].
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Earth Molecule:

Enthalpy [H]:

Entropy [S]:


Exodermal Regeneration Cycle [ERC]:
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Sloughing Hypothesis:

Supra Human Molecular Organism:
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Bound State:



Business Chemistry

Business Molecule

Business Thermodynamics:
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Do-deca-bond Model