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Element Count Molecular Formula Name Formation Date
N/A "Bang Plasma" 16 Fundamental Particles 13.7 BYA
N/A u2d+e Sub-atomic N/A
1 H2 Hydrogen N/A
2 H2O Water N/A
3 CH4O Methanol 4.6 BYA
4 CH4ON2 Urea N/A
5 C10H12O6N5P RNA 4.4 BYA
6 C21H36O16N7P3S Coenzyme A N/A
7 C4H3O2NS2NaI mol-7 N/A
8 C20H22O7N2SNaIPt mol-8 N/A
9 N/A N/A N/A
10 CE5HE5OE4NE4PE2SE2CaE2KE2ClE2NaE2 Intermediate 4.2 BYA
11 N/A N/A N/A
12 CE7HE7OE6NE6PE4SE4CaE4KE3ClE3NaE3MgE2FeE2 Pro-bacteria 4.0 BYA
13 N/A N/A N/A
14 N/A N/A N/A
15 CE10HE10OE10NE9PE8SE8CaE8KE6ClE6NaE6MgE6FeE5SiE4MnE2CoE2 Prokaryote 3.85 BYA
16 N/A N/A N/A
17 N/A N/A N/A
18 CE16HE16OE16NE15PE14SE14CaE14KE12ClE12NaE12MgE12FeE11FE11 SiE10CuE9MnE8SeE8CoE7 Pre Aquatic Worm 2.6 BYA
19 N/A N/A N/A
20 N/A N/A N/A
21 N/A N/A N/A
22 CE22HE22OE22NE21PE20SE19CaE20KE18ClE18NaE18MgE18FeE17FE17 ZnE16SiE16CuE15IE14MnE14SeE14MoE13CoE13VE12 Fish 0.7 BYA
23 N/A Reptile 350 MYA
24 CE26HE26OE26NE25PE24SE23CaE24KE22ClE22NaE22MgE22FeE21FE21 ZnE20SiE20CuE19BE19IE18MnE18SeE18CrE18MoE17CoE17VE16 Old World Monkey 30 MYA
25 N/A A. Afarensis 5 MYA
26 CE27HE27OE27NE26PE25SE24CaE25KE24ClE24NaE24MgE24FeE23FE23 ZnE22SiE22CuE21BE21IE20SnE20MnE20SeE20CrE20NiE20MoE19CoE19VE18 Human 0.2 MYA
27 N/A N/A N/A
28 N/A Evolution N/A
Molecular Evolution Table
:: Evolution ::

Human Chemistry

Molecular Evolution Table
Video: Overview
Free Energy
See also
Guest Book

This URL contains an approximate molecular evolution table, derived from a meta-analysis of 21 mass composition tables, 7 nutritional almanacs, 4 biochemistry texts, and several waste excrement data sets, as compiled by the Institute of Human Thermodynamics, showing an approximate human evolutionary molecular descendancy from the standard model "bang plasma" consortium of 16 fundamental particles originating 13.7 billion years ago.

Molecular formulas of 8 elements or less are exact; those of 9 elements or greater are approximate.  Those elements shown highlighted (C, H, O, N, P, S) are characteristic of life.
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[on table]
[13.7 BYA, Bang Plasma] Rees, M. (2005). Universe - the Definitive Visual Guide (glossary). New York: DK Publishing, Inc.
[4.6 BYA, Methanol (3-element molecule)] Starr, C. & Taggart, R. (1992). Biology - the Unity and Diversity of Life, 6th. Ed. (textbook). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
[4.4 BYA, RNA (5-element molecule)] Calculated via linear graphical extrapolation between known points: [(4.6 BYA, 3 element molecule), (3.85 BYA, 15 element molecule)].
[4.2 BYA, Intermediate (9-element molecule)] Calculated via linear graphical extrapolation between known points: [(4.6 BYA, 3 element molecule), (3.85 BYA, 15 element molecule)].
[4.0 BYA, Pro-bacteria (12-element molecule)] Calculated via linear graphical extrapolation between known points: [(4.6 BYA, 3 element molecule), (3.85 BYA, 15 element molecule)].
[3.85 BYA, Prokaryote (15-element molecule)] Margulis, L. & Sagan, D. (1997). What is Sex. New York: Simon & Schuster Editions
[1.2 BYA, Pre Aquatic Worm (18-element molecule)] Calculated via linear graphical extrapolation between known points: [(3.85 BYA, 15 element molecule), (0.7 BYA, 22 element molecule)].
[0.7 BYA, Fish (22-element molecule)] Lewis, R. (1992). Life - Beginnings of Life, Animal Life, Plant Life, Evolution of Life, Behavior and Ecology of Life. (textbook). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
[350 MYA, Reptile (23-element molecule)] Purves, W., Orians, G., & Heller, C. (1995). Life - the Science of Biology, 4th. Ed. (textbook). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
[30 MYA, Old World Monkey (24-element molecule)] Calvin, W. (2002). A Brain For All Seasons - Human Evolution & Abrupt Climate Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[0.2 MYA, Human (26-element molecule)] Haywook, J. (2001). Atlas of World History (textbook). New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
[for dates]
6-element molecular formulas [or less]  Lehniger, A. Nelson, D. & Cox, M. (1993). Principles of Biochemistry - with an Extended Discussion of Oxygen-Binding Proteins, 2nd Ed. (textbook). New York: Worth Publishers

7-element molecular formulas [or more]  determined via standard (mass composition based) molecular formula calculation procedures as detailed by example in: Chang, R. (1998). Chemistry, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York McGraw Hill.  Mass composition data-sets were compiled via meta-analysis of the following sources.  Note, only those elements found to have actual biological "active" function in the correlative molecular structured organism were used; in the human organism, based on our meta-analysis, only 26 elements have active bodily function:

Composition Tables

[1] Emsley, J. (2001). Nature's Building Blocks - An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press: [25 Element Human Mass Composition Table]. Note: this table underestimates (by one element).
[2] Ed Uthman's, MD, [59 Element Human Mass Composition Table]. Note: this table overestimates (by thirty-three elements) via using trace non-biologically active elements in its count.
[3] Sea Friends Organization [www.seafriends.org] (1996). Element Composition Tables:
Essential elements in Living Organisms: [URL].
Relative abundance of the first 30 elements, critical to life: [URL].
Relative abundance of 30 elements in soil, sea and living matter: [URL].
[4] Argonne National Laboratory - Chemical Compostion of Humans: [URL]
[5] [Biology-Online.org] - Chemical Composition of the Body: [URL].
[6] [www.madsci.org] (1999). What is the mineral/chemical composition of the Human Body in percent? [URL]
[7] Wayne State University (2001), Engineering Physiology - Chemical Composition of the Body: [URL].
[8] Freitas, R. (1999). Nanomedicine, Ch. 3.1: "Human Body Chemical Composition" [Abstract]:
Quote: "The human body consists of 7E27 atoms arranged in a highly aperiodic physical structure. Although 41 chemical elements are commonly found in the body's construction, C, H, O, and N comprises 99% of its atoms. Fully 87% of human body atoms are either hydrogen or oxygen."
[9] University of Miami:
Element Composition in the Human Body [URL].
10 Propterties of Life [URL].
[10] General Chemistry Online - Elemental Composition Table of Living Cells [URL
[11] Table: Elements of the Living Body [URL]. Quote: "Only 25 or so are Used to Build Living Things"
[12] NSDL: Elements in the Human Body FAQ [URL]. Quote: "There are 24 Elements in Your Body"
[13] Department of Biological Sciences, Plymouth State University [URL].
Quote: "About 26 Elements are Found in Living Organisms"
[14] The U.S. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils Chemical and Mineral Composition of the Human Body [URL]:

[15] Heymsfield, S. &  and Wang, Z. (1997). Human Body Composition: Advances in Models and Methods. Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 17: 527-558 [Article].
[16] UIUC Physics Van: Human Skin & Human Body Composition: [URL]

Nutrition / Dietary / Excrement - Almanacs

[1] Kirschmann, G. & Kirschmann, J. (1996). Nutrition Almanac, 4th. Ed. New York: McGrall Hill.
[2] Krause, M. (1996). Krause's Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy, 9th. Ed. (textbook). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.
[3] Murray, M. (1996). Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing.
[4] Busch, R. (2000). The New Nutrition - From Antioxidants to Zucchini. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[5] Hall, R.H. (2000). The Unofficial Guide to Smart Nutrition. New York: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
[6] Carper, J. (1993). Food Your Miracle Medicine - How Food Can Prevent and Cure over 100 Symptoms and Problems - Based on 10,000 Scientific Studies. New York: Harper Perennial.
[7] Mendell, E. (1994). Food as Medicine - What you can do to Prevent Everything from Colds to Heart Disease to Cancer. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Bacteria Composition Sources

[1] Margulis, L. & Sagan, D. (1997). What is Sex. New York: Simon & Schuster.
[2] Margulis, L. & Sagan, D. (1995). What is Life. Los Angeles: University of Californial Press.
[3]  J A Webster, D D Fay, J L Costa, P M Jones, and R Hugh (1984). "Elemental composition of bacterial metachromatic inclusions determined by electron microprobe X-ray analysis.".J Bacteriol., May; 158(2): 441–446. [URL].
[4] Vrede, K., Heldal, M., Norland, S., & Bratbak, G. (2002). "Elemental Composition (C, N, P) and Cell Volume of Exponentially Growing and Nutrient-Limited Bacterioplankton". Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 June; 68(6): 2965–2971. [URL]
[for formulas]
We use the term "bang plasma" as a catch phrase to describe the constituency of the early universe, in which the 4 fundamental forces and 12 fundamental particles are hypothesized to have been in a coalesced state.  According to Martin Rees, cosmologist and general editor for the multiple-collaboratively written 2005 visual glossary Universe: "we know there was a bang, yet we do not know what banged, nor why it banged." Here, for simplicity, we will term this unknown state "Bang Plasma".

Regarding which exact inorganic molecules, as Fe, Zn, H, S, H2, NH3, CH4, H2O, CO, CO2, HCN, etc., reacted to form macromolecules, those with a molecular weight in the range of a few thousand (6-element molecules) to many millions (9-element molecules), it is understood that all biological macromolecules are made from the same three dozen subunits (Lehniger, 1993); and from here living biomolecules are made.  Generally, it is known that about 98% of all living things, from a single-celled bacterium to a thousand pound hippopotamus, are composed of only six elements: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and Sulfer (S) (Lewis, 1992).

Thermodynamic Evolution

To clarify, this molecular evolution table is not to imply that it takes only a couple of dozen steps, i.e. reactions, to form a human molecule; rather, there are over 2.5 million known molecules (www.dmoz.org), a count which grows daily; this only underestimates the number of likely molecules involved in the evolution and subsequent formation of the human molecule.

Lehniger, A. Nelson, D. & Cox, M. (1993). Principles of Biochemistry - with an Extended Discussion of Oxygen-Binding Proteins, 2nd Ed. (textbook). New York: Worth Publishers.
Lewis, R. (1992). Life - Beginnings of Life, Animal Life, Plant Life, Evolution of Life, Behavior and Ecology of Life. (textbook). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
d.m.o.z - open directory project (2005). Chemical Databases [URL]
Via this molecular evolution table, we gleam the pictorial understanding that the evolution of molecular life, from pre-galactic hydrogen (H) and helium (He) precursors, which at one point defined the approximate total composition of the universe, was a result of a multibillion year immense fundamental-particle / chemical reaction process, which in finer detail deconstructs into a connected mechanism of coupled endergonic and exergonic reactions, continuing to onward this day.  At the 4.6 billion year mark, the 92 naturally occurring elements which had previously formed owing to inter-galactic chemical reactions, had gravitationally grouped into the proto-solar system.  From here, the ejection of gamma ray photons from thermonuclear reactions internal to the sun drove forward the molecular-chemical-biological evolution of life:   
General Mechanism of Evolution:
  (1) all living and non-living entities are molecular structures.
  (2) molecular structures become unstable when they absorb photons.
  (3) unstable structures tend to move or organize towards stability.
  (4) focused organizing tendencies characterize evolution.
Free Energy of Formation  [∆GF]
[for molecular structures]
For small molecules, i.e. 6-element molecules or smaller, the free energy change of formation at STP, i.e. the energy released in the form of evolutionary "work" during the formation of each respective molecular formation, is readily available in reference tables, as Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th Ed.:

H2O (2-element molecule): ∆GF = -229 KJ/mol
NiSO4 (3-element molecule): ∆GF = -782 KJ/mol
NaHCO3 (4-element molecule): ∆GF = -846 KJ/mol
K2SO4Al2(SO4)324H2O (5-element molecule): ∆GF = -10,278 KJ/mol

For large molecular structures, as living humans, approximations are used:

NaE24MgE24SeE24FeE23CoE23CuE23FE23IE23ZnE22 (26-element molecule): ∆GF = -4.6E32 KJ/mol

Regarding the molecular formulas shown, human mass composition tables are in great supply; as such, empirical molecular formula calculations in the human case are relatively straight forward.  For those structures as bacteria to monkeys, mass composition tables are difficult to acquire.  Owing to this deficiency, approximations and extrapolation techniques based on neighboring genetic relatedness were used.  Some general knowns regarding related elemental composition are noted below:

Boron (B): fruits, nuts, and grains.
Copper (Cu): nuts, eggs, almonds, shellfish.
Chromium (Cr): eggs, yeast, whole wheat breads, mushrooms.
Cobalt (Co): meats, ocean vegetations, figs.
Selenium (Se): yeast, organ and muscle meats, fish, shellfish, grains, cereals, Brazil nuts, broccoli, cabbage, garlic, onions.
Manganese (Mn): nuts, seeds, eggs, green vegetables.
Silicon (Si): green leafy vegetables, plant fiber, essential trace mineral to animals.
Zinc (Zn): second in concentration to that of Fe, involved in Krebs cycle.
Fluorine (F): fish, meat, skeleton, teeth, present in all living things.
Iodine (I): needed in first three months of human pregnancy.
Vanadium (V): marine worms absorb vanadium.
Iron (Fe): E. coli bacteria has, chemoautotroph has.
Sulfur (S): prevalent in green sulfur bacteria.
Magnesium (Mg): chlorophyll a has, cyano-bacteria has.
Sodium-Chloride (NaCl): halo-bacteria has.
Calcium (Ca): calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) is made by bacteria.
Silicon (Si): bacteria precipitates it.
Colbalt (Co): part of vitamin B12, bacteria in the colon produce it.
Molybdenum (Mo): found in algae, which fish eat.
Monkeys eat: nuts, eggs, leaves, small animals.
Tuna contains: Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Na
Fish (general) contain: Cu, Mn, Zn

# Name Symbol % By Mass Function in the Human Body
1 Oxygen O 61 Roughly 60% of the body is H2O, which is essential for almost all chemical reactions within the body.
2 Carbon C 23 Is a major elemental component of carbohydrates & fats.
3 Hydrogen H 10 Is a major elemental component of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
4 Nitrogen N 2.6 Is a major elemental component of proteins.
5 Calcium Ca 1.4 Used in the development and maintenance of bone structure and development. Functions in the clotting process, nerve transmission, muscle stimulation, parathyroid hormone function, and metabolism of vitamin D, etc.
6 Phosphorus P 1.1 Plays a part in almost every chemical reaction within the body because it is present in every cell. Forms calcium phosphate with calcium in the bones & teeth in a 2-1 ratio. Is important in the utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth, maintenance, and repair, etc.
7 Potassium K 0.3 Functions mainly in the intercellular fluid as the primary ion force. Potassium together with sodium helps regulate the water balance within the body. Potassium regulates the transfer of nutrients to the cell, transmits electrochemical impulses, and is necessary for normal growth enzymatic reactions, etc.
8 Sulfur S 0.2 Keeps hair glossy and smooth and keeps the complexion clear and youthful. Sulfur is an important elemental constituent of thiamin, biotin, methionine, cystine, and cysteine. It disinfects the blood, resists bacteria, and stimulates bile production in the liver, etc.
9 Chlorine Cl 0.18 Helps regulate acid alkali balance, stimulates production of hydrochloric acid, stimulates the liver to function as a filter for wastes, aids in keeping joints and tendons in youthful shape, and helps distribute hormones, etc.
10 Sodium Na 0.17 Is found in every cell in the body. Sodium functions with potassium to equalize the acid-alkali factor in the blood. Along with potassium, it helps regulate water balance within the body. Sodium keeps blood minerals soluble, so they will not build up as deposits in the bloodstream, etc.
11 Magnesium Mg 0.029 70% of the bodies magnesium supply is located in the bones together with calcium and phosphorus, while 30% is found in cellular fluids and some soft tissue. Is involved with energy production of glucose, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, the formation of urea, vascular tone, muscle impulse transmission, electrical stability of the cells, and neurotransmission, etc.
12 Iron Fe 0.012 The major function of iron is to combine with protein and copper in making hemoglobin. Iron builds up the quality of the blood and increases resistance to stress, the immune system, energy production, growth in children, and resistance to disease.
13 Fluorine F 0.004 Research indicates that fluorine increases the deposition of calcium, thereby strengthening the bones. Helps reduce the formation of acid in the mouth caused by carbohydrates, thereby reducing the likelihood of tooth decay.
14 Zinc Zn 0.003 Helps fight disease, protect the immune system, involved in the Krebs cycle, has been found to increase the male sex drive, is a constituent of more that 2000 enzymes involved in digestion and metabolism, etc.
15 Silicon Si 0.001 Is needed for the connective tissues of the body such as the tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, nails, skin, and hair, and is essential for their integrity. Silicon works with calcium to make strong bones, proper levels are essential during growth periods, and it is helpful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, etc.
16 Copper Cu 0.0003 Involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin, collagen, and the neurotransmitter noradrenalin. Is an important blood antioxidant, prevents the rancidity of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and helps cell membranes remain healthy.
17 Iodine I 0.00003 Adds in the development and functioning of the thyroid gland, and is an integral part of thyroxine. Iodine plays an important role in regulating cellular oxidation, promotes growth and development, and stimulates the basal metabolic rate—helping the body burn excess fat.
18 Tin Sn 0.00003 Deficiency results in poor growth and diminished hemoglobin synthesis.
19 Boron B 0.00003 A trace mineral essential for health bones.
20 Selenium Se 0.00002 Is a natural antioxidant that protects against free radicals and appears to preserve elasticity of tissue that become less elastic with aging. Is necessary for the production of prostaglandins, and pancreatic function depends upon selenium, etc.
21 Chromium Cr 0.00002 Stimulates the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glucose for energy and the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. It appears to increase the effectiveness of insulin and its ability to handle glucose, preventing hypoglycemia or diabetes. The mineral may also be involved in the synthesis of protein through its binding action with RNA molecules.
22 Manganese Mn 0.00002 Functions as an important antioxidant in the prevention of toxic oxygen forms. It plays a role in activating numerous enzymes that are necessary for utilization of choline, biotin, thiamine, and ascorbic acid. Is a catalyst in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and mucopolysaccharides, etc.
23 Nickel Ni 0.00002 May be a factor in hormone, lipid, and membrane metabolism and cell integrity. Significant amounts are found in DNA and RNA. May be involved in glucose metabolism, etc.
24 Molybdenum Mo 0.000007 Is an essential part of two enzymes: xanthine oxidase—which aids in the mobilization of iron from the liver reserves and helps change iron from ferrous to ferric, and aldehyde oxidase—which is necessary for the oxidation of fats. It is also a factor in copper metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and the final stages of urine production, ect.
25 Cobalt Co 0.000004 Necessary for the normal functioning and maintenance of red blood cells as well as all other body cells; and is a constituent of vitamin B12.
26 Vanadium V 0.0000002 Has been shown to reverse diabetes. Inhibits cholesterol synthesis. Bones, cartilage, and teeth require it for proper development. It has been shown to have a function in cellular metabolism, iron metabolism, and red blood cell growth, etc.
Here, E=Element, EMF=Empirical Molecular Formula, EMM=Empirical Molar Mass, MM=Molar Mass, and MF=Molecular Formula.  For external corroboration on these calculations, see the following links:

[1] Grabov Rat Handbook: Abundance of Elements in the Human body (lean 70 kg male): [URL].
[2] Jefferson Lab: How many atoms are in the human body? [URL].
[3] Jupiter Scientific: Shakespeare's Atoms [URL].

See  Also:
Symbol Choice Methodology
Human Molecule Excerpt

This section is under-construction
Human Molecular Formula Excel Spreadsheet

mol-7: 5-JOD-NATRIUM-SALZ (0024264-500)
mol-8: Iodomethyl['eta'('2)-dimethylfumarat][3-(6-pikolin-2-yl)methylenaminobenzensulfo saeure, Na-salz-N,N']platin(0) (3575215-000)
External links:
Evolution Poster - Zazzle.com
Iodine and Evolution - Sebastiano Venturi M.D. (11/15/06)

From: Sebastiano Venturi To: Libb Thims
Sent: Tuesday, November 21, 2006 10:30 AM
Re: comments on dating accuracy

I think that the date of first incorporation of iodine into biological molecular structure (as iodocarbons) might be started in Cyanobacteria (as a primitive antioxidant: probably the first antioxidant) about 3.5 BYA, as we reported in our works.
Human chemistry:

The following 2005 table (shown below), showing a visual picture of the mechanistic nature of evolution from the hydrogen atom to the "human molecule" (human being), was referenced and explained, in detail, in chapter five, Molecular Evolution (pgs. 121-46), of the 2007 textbook Human Chemistry (Volume One), and in chapter nine, Molecular Evolution (pgs. 69-87), of the 2008 book The Human Molecule
Institute of Human Thermodynamics
site search by freefind
The following 11 August, 2008, 9:32-min, video, by American chemical engineer Libb Thims, gives a short overview of the molecular evolution table (as found as an article in the Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics and as a poster at Zazzle).