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Inception: 10/24/05
Variations of the 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
[1] Kelvin, W.T. (1848). "On an Absolute Thermometric Scale founded on Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat, and calculated from Regnault's Observations." Philosophical Magazine October 1848 [from Sir William Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 1 (Cambridge University Press, 1882), pp. 100-106.] [URL]

[2,5] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[3] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Biography [http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html]

[4] Planck, M. (1911). Thermodynamik, 3rd Ed. Leipzig: Veit & Co.,

[5] Nernst, W. (1912). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[6] Lewis, G.N. & Randall, M. (1923). Thermodynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[7] Simon, F. (1931). Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 203, 219.

[8] Fermi, E. (1936). Thermodynamics. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

[9] Bazarov, I. (1964). Thermodynamics (textbook). New York: The Macmillan Company.

[10] Bent, H. (1965). The Second Law – an Introduction to Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics.  (textbook). New York: Oxford University Press.

[11] Lehninger, A. (1971). Bioenergetics - the Molecular Basis of Biological Energy Transformations, 2nd. Ed. London: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.

[12] Adkins, C. (1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13] Barrow, G. (1988). Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.

[14] Black, W. & Hartley, J. (1996). Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). New York: Harper Collins.

[15] Wark, R. & Richards, D. (1999). Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[16-18] Baierlein, R. (1999). Thermal Physics (texbook). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[19] Haynie, D. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[20-22] Hoiberg, Dale (Senior Editor) (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica—Deluxe Edition [CD-ROM].

[23] Clark J. (General Editor) (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.

[24] Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

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CONTENTS

1-10; 1906 - 1988
11-20; 1996 - 2004
21-30; 2005+


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3rd Law Notes
3rd Law Sources
1. Infinite cold must correspond to a finite number of degrees of the air-thermometer below zero; since, if we push the strict principle of graduation sufficiently far, we should arrive at a point corresponding to the volume of air being reduced to nothing, which would be marked as -273° of the scale (-100/.366, if .366 be the coefficient of expansion); and therefore -273° of the air-thermometer is a point which cannot be reached at any finite temperature, however low [Absolute Zero]. Kelvin
[1848]


2. The entropy change of a system during a reversible isothermal process tends towards zero when the thermodynamic temperature of the system tends towards zero [Nernst 'principle']. Nernst
[1906]


3. The maximum work obtainable from a process can be calculated from the heat evolved at temperatures close to absolute zero [Heat Theorem]. Nernst
[1906]


4. The absolute value of the entropy of a pure solid or a pure liquid approaches zero at 0 K. Planck
[1911]


5. It is impossible to reach absolute zero in a finite number of operations.
[Nernst ‘statement’]
Nernst
[1912]


6. If the entropy of each element is some crystalline state be taken as zero at the absolute zero of temperature, every substance has a finite positive entropy; but at the absolute zero of temperature the entropy may become zero, and does so become in the case of perfect crystalline substances. Lewis & Randall
[1923]


7. The contribution to the entropy of a system by each aspect which is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium tends to zero as the temperature tends to zero. Simon
[1931]


8. The entropy of every system at absolute zero can always be taken equal to zero. Fermi
[1936]


9. The absolute zero temperature cannot be reached; a consequence of Nernst’s heat theorem. Bazarov
[1964]


10. The addition of thermal energy to a substance generally increases its temperature and its entropy; the removal of thermal energy from a substance generally decreases its temperature and its entropy; hence, at absolute zero, the entropy of a perfect crystal, regardless of its chemical composition, may be taken as zero. Bent
[1965]


11. The entropy of a perfect crystal of any element or compound at absolute zero temperature is zero. Lehninger
[1971]


12. It is impossible to reduce the temperature of any system or part of a system to the absolute zero in a finite number of operations. Adkins
[1983]


13. The entropies of substances at 0 K can be assigned the value of zero. Barrow
[1988]


14. The entropy of all pure substances in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature of the substance approaches absolute zero [Nernst theorem]. Black & Hartley
[1996]


15. The entropy change for isothermal processes at absolute zero of temperature is zero. Wark & Richards
[1999]


16. No process can lead to T = O K in a finite number of steps.
[unattainablility form]
Baierlein
[1999]


17. The entropy goes to zero as T → 0 K.
[absolute entropy form]
Baierlein
[1999]


18. The entropy change in any isothermal process goes to zero as T → 0 K.
[entropy change form]
Baierlein
[1999]


19. The entropy of a perfect crystal is zero when the absolute temperature is zero. Haynie
[2001]


20. At a temperature above absolute zero, all matter tends toward random motion and all energy tends to dissipate. Britannica
[2002]


21. Crystalline materials have zero entropy at the temperature of absolute zero. Britannica
[2002]


22. Absolute zero is unattainable. Britannica
[2002]


23. It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero of temperature (0 K) in a finite number of operations. Clark
[2004]


24. The absolute entropy is zero for all perfect crystalline substances at absolute zero temperature. Smith, Van Ness & Abbott
[2005]


Lord Kelvin [1824-1907]
Institute of Human Thermodynamics
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