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P.S.

Inception: 10/24/05

[1] Kelvin, W.T. (1848). "On an Absolute Thermometric Scale founded on Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat, and calculated from Regnault's Observations." *Philosophical Magazine October 1848* [from Sir William Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 1 (Cambridge University Press, 1882), pp. 100-106.] [URL]

[2,5] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). *A to Z of Thermodynamics* (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[3] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Biography [http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1920/nernst-bio.html]

[4] Planck, M. (1911). *Thermodynamik, 3rd Ed. *Leipzig: Veit & Co.,

[5] Nernst, W. (1912). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). *A to Z of Thermodynamics* (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[6] Lewis, G.N. & Randall, M. (1923)*. Thermodynamics. *New York: McGraw-Hill.

[7] Simon, F. (1931). *Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem.* 203, 219.

[8] Fermi, E. (1936). *Thermodynamics. *New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

[9] Bazarov, I. (1964). Thermodynamics (textbook). New York: The Macmillan Company.

[10] Bent, H. (1965). The Second Law – an Introduction to Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics. (textbook). New York: Oxford University Press.

[11] Lehninger, A. (1971). *Bioenergetics - the Molecular Basis of Biological Energy Transformations, 2nd. Ed. *London: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.

[12] Adkins, C. (1983). *Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. *(textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13] Barrow, G. (1988). *Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed. *(textbook). New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.

[14] Black, W. & Hartley, J. (1996). *Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. *(textbook). New York: Harper Collins.

[15] Wark, R. & Richards, D. (1999). *Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. *(textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[16-18] Baierlein, R. (1999). *Thermal Physics *(texbook). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[19] Haynie, D. (2001). *Biological Thermodynamics* (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[20-22] Hoiberg, Dale (Senior Editor) (2002). *Encyclopedia Britannica—Deluxe Edition* [CD-ROM].

[23] Clark J. (General Editor) (2004). *The Essential Dictionary of Science. *New York: Barnes & Noble Books.

[24] Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). *Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. *(textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

This list is under-construction (12/20/05)

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3rd Law Poll

3rd Law Notes

3rd Law Sources

1. |
Infinite cold must correspond to a finite number of degrees of the air-thermometer below zero; since, if we push the strict principle of graduation sufficiently far, we should arrive at a point corresponding to the volume of air being reduced to nothing, which would be marked as -273° of the scale (-100/.366, if .366 be the coefficient of expansion); and therefore -273° of the air-thermometer is a point which cannot be reached at any finite temperature, however low [Absolute Zero]. | Kelvin[1848] |

2. |
The entropy change of a system during a reversible isothermal process tends towards zero when the thermodynamic temperature of the system tends towards zero [Nernst 'principle']. | Nernst[1906] |

3. |
The maximum work obtainable from a process can be calculated from the heat evolved at temperatures close to absolute zero [Heat Theorem]. | Nernst[1906] |

4. |
The absolute value of the entropy of a pure solid or a pure liquid approaches zero at 0 K. | Planck[1911] |

5. |
It is impossible to reach absolute zero in a finite number of operations. [Nernst ‘statement’] |
Nernst[1912] |

6. |
If the entropy of each element is some crystalline state be taken as zero at the absolute zero of temperature, every substance has a finite positive entropy; but at the absolute zero of temperature the entropy may become zero, and does so become in the case of perfect crystalline substances. | Lewis & Randall[1923] |

7. |
The contribution to the entropy of a system by each aspect which is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium tends to zero as the temperature tends to zero. | Simon[1931] |

8. |
The entropy of every system at absolute zero can always be taken equal to zero. | Fermi[1936] |

9. |
The absolute zero temperature cannot be reached; a consequence of Nernst’s heat theorem. | Bazarov[1964] |

10. |
The addition of thermal energy to a substance generally increases its temperature and its entropy; the removal of thermal energy from a substance generally decreases its temperature and its entropy; hence, at absolute zero, the entropy of a perfect crystal, regardless of its chemical composition, may be taken as zero. | Bent[1965] |

11. |
The entropy of a perfect crystal of any element or compound at absolute zero temperature is zero. | Lehninger[1971] |

12. |
It is impossible to reduce the temperature of any system or part of a system to the absolute zero in a finite number of operations. | Adkins[1983] |

13. |
The entropies of substances at 0 K can be assigned the value of zero. | Barrow[1988] |

14. |
The entropy of all pure substances in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature of the substance approaches absolute zero [Nernst theorem]. | Black & Hartley[1996] |

15. |
The entropy change for isothermal processes at absolute zero of temperature is zero. | Wark & Richards[1999] |

16. |
No process can lead to T = O K in a finite number of steps. [unattainablility form] |
Baierlein[1999] |

17. |
The entropy goes to zero as T → 0 K. [absolute entropy form] |
Baierlein[1999] |

18. |
The entropy change in any isothermal process goes to zero as T → 0 K. [entropy change form] |
Baierlein[1999] |

19. |
The entropy of a perfect crystal is zero when the absolute temperature is zero. | Haynie[2001] |

20. |
At a temperature above absolute zero, all matter tends toward random motion and all energy tends to dissipate. | Britannica[2002] |

21. |
Crystalline materials have zero entropy at the temperature of absolute zero. | Britannica[2002] |

22. |
Absolute zero is unattainable. | Britannica[2002] |

23. |
It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero of temperature (0 K) in a finite number of operations. | Clark[2004] |

24. |
The absolute entropy is zero for all perfect crystalline substances at absolute zero temperature. | Smith, Van Ness & Abbott[2005] |