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Inception: 10/24/05
Variations of the 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
[1] Kelvin, W.T. (1848). "On an Absolute Thermometric Scale founded on Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat, and calculated from Regnault's Observations." Philosophical Magazine October 1848 [from Sir William Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 1 (Cambridge University Press, 1882), pp. 100-106.] [URL]

[2,5] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[3] Nernst, W. (1906). Source: Biography []

[4] Planck, M. (1911). Thermodynamik, 3rd Ed. Leipzig: Veit & Co.,

[5] Nernst, W. (1912). Source: Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[6] Lewis, G.N. & Randall, M. (1923). Thermodynamics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[7] Simon, F. (1931). Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 203, 219.

[8] Fermi, E. (1936). Thermodynamics. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

[9] Bazarov, I. (1964). Thermodynamics (textbook). New York: The Macmillan Company.

[10] Bent, H. (1965). The Second Law – an Introduction to Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics.  (textbook). New York: Oxford University Press.

[11] Lehninger, A. (1971). Bioenergetics - the Molecular Basis of Biological Energy Transformations, 2nd. Ed. London: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.

[12] Adkins, C. (1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13] Barrow, G. (1988). Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.

[14] Black, W. & Hartley, J. (1996). Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). New York: Harper Collins.

[15] Wark, R. & Richards, D. (1999). Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[16-18] Baierlein, R. (1999). Thermal Physics (texbook). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[19] Haynie, D. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[20-22] Hoiberg, Dale (Senior Editor) (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica—Deluxe Edition [CD-ROM].

[23] Clark J. (General Editor) (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.

[24] Smith, J., Van Ness, H., & Abbott, M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

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1. Infinite cold must correspond to a finite number of degrees of the air-thermometer below zero; since, if we push the strict principle of graduation sufficiently far, we should arrive at a point corresponding to the volume of air being reduced to nothing, which would be marked as -273° of the scale (-100/.366, if .366 be the coefficient of expansion); and therefore -273° of the air-thermometer is a point which cannot be reached at any finite temperature, however low [Absolute Zero]. Kelvin

2. The entropy change of a system during a reversible isothermal process tends towards zero when the thermodynamic temperature of the system tends towards zero [Nernst 'principle']. Nernst

3. The maximum work obtainable from a process can be calculated from the heat evolved at temperatures close to absolute zero [Heat Theorem]. Nernst

4. The absolute value of the entropy of a pure solid or a pure liquid approaches zero at 0 K. Planck

5. It is impossible to reach absolute zero in a finite number of operations.
[Nernst ‘statement’]

6. If the entropy of each element is some crystalline state be taken as zero at the absolute zero of temperature, every substance has a finite positive entropy; but at the absolute zero of temperature the entropy may become zero, and does so become in the case of perfect crystalline substances. Lewis & Randall

7. The contribution to the entropy of a system by each aspect which is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium tends to zero as the temperature tends to zero. Simon

8. The entropy of every system at absolute zero can always be taken equal to zero. Fermi

9. The absolute zero temperature cannot be reached; a consequence of Nernst’s heat theorem. Bazarov

10. The addition of thermal energy to a substance generally increases its temperature and its entropy; the removal of thermal energy from a substance generally decreases its temperature and its entropy; hence, at absolute zero, the entropy of a perfect crystal, regardless of its chemical composition, may be taken as zero. Bent

11. The entropy of a perfect crystal of any element or compound at absolute zero temperature is zero. Lehninger

12. It is impossible to reduce the temperature of any system or part of a system to the absolute zero in a finite number of operations. Adkins

13. The entropies of substances at 0 K can be assigned the value of zero. Barrow

14. The entropy of all pure substances in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature of the substance approaches absolute zero [Nernst theorem]. Black & Hartley

15. The entropy change for isothermal processes at absolute zero of temperature is zero. Wark & Richards

16. No process can lead to T = O K in a finite number of steps.
[unattainablility form]

17. The entropy goes to zero as T → 0 K.
[absolute entropy form]

18. The entropy change in any isothermal process goes to zero as T → 0 K.
[entropy change form]

19. The entropy of a perfect crystal is zero when the absolute temperature is zero. Haynie

20. At a temperature above absolute zero, all matter tends toward random motion and all energy tends to dissipate. Britannica

21. Crystalline materials have zero entropy at the temperature of absolute zero. Britannica

22. Absolute zero is unattainable. Britannica

23. It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero of temperature (0 K) in a finite number of operations. Clark

24. The absolute entropy is zero for all perfect crystalline substances at absolute zero temperature. Smith, Van Ness & Abbott

Lord Kelvin [1824-1907]
Institute of Human Thermodynamics
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