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Inception: 11/16/05
Variations of the 0th Law of Thermodynamics
[1] Maxwell, J. (1872). Source: Perrot, P. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.

[2] Fowler, R. (1931). Source: [www.jcphysics.com] [URL] + Cengel, Y. & Boles, M. (2002). Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach, 4th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

[3] Bent, H. (1965). The Second Law – an Introduction to Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics.  (textbook). New York: Oxford University Press.

[4] Adkins, C. (1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5] Black, W. & Hartley, J. (1996). Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed. (textbook). New York: Harper Collins.

[6] Kondepudi, D. & Prigogine, I. (1998). Modern Thermodynamics – From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures (textbook). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[7] Wark, R. & Richards, D. (1999). Thermodynamics, 6th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[8] Schroeder, D. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics. (textbook). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

[9] Exell, R.H.B. (2001). "The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics" [URL]. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi.

[10-11] Cengel, Y. & Boles, M. (2002). Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach, 4th Ed. (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.

[12] Schneider, E. & Sagan, D. (2005). Into The Cool - Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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CONTENTS

1-10; 1906 - 2002
11-20; 2002 - Present


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Ralph Fowler [1889-1944]
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1. Two systems A and B in thermal equilibrium with a third system C are in thermal equilibrium with one another. Maxwell
[1872]


2. The (heat transfer) principle of Fowler. Fowler
[1931]


3. If bodies A and B are found to be in thermal equilibrium with each other:
(ΔE/ΔS)A = (ΔE/ΔS)B
and bodies A and C are found to be in thermal equilibrium with each other:
(ΔE/ΔS)A = (ΔE/ΔS)C
it follows that:
(ΔE/ΔS)B = (ΔE/ΔS)C
implying that bodies B and C when tested against each other would be found to be in thermal equilibrium.
Bent
[1965]


4. If two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Adkins
[1983]


5. When two bodies have equality of temperature with a third body, they have equality of temperature with each other. Black & Hartley
[1996]


6. The “transitivity” of the state of equilibrium, where two or more systems that interact and exchange energy and / or matter will eventually reach the state of thermal equilibrium in which the temperatures of all systems are equal. Kondepudi & Prigogine
[1998]


7. When each of two systems is in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they also will be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Wark & Richards
[1999]


8. If system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B, and system B is in thermal equilibrium with system C, then system A is in thermal equilibrium with system C. Schroeder
[2000]


9. Two thermodynamic systems in thermal equilibrium with the same environment are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Exell
[2001]


10. If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Cengel & Boles
[2002]


11. Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both have the same temperature reading even if they are not in contact. Cengel & Boles
[2002]


12. When a closed thermodynamic system within rigid heat-proof walls reaches the point of no more change, the system has reached a state of thermal equilibrium. Schneider & Sagan
[2005]


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